Whatever the topic you are preparing to teach, the Teaching Cycle is a great tool to use to ensure you have covered all vital elements to help delivery to be a success, to see your roles, responsibilities & boundaries
Our role, responsibilities and boundaries as tutors within the terms of the tutor/training cycle can be split into 4 areas:
Research and analyse learning and development needs – this is the first step within the tutor/training cycle and can also be known as the ‘initial assessment’. During this initial assessment it would be our responsibility to identify their needs; this could be achieved by obtaining knowledge from the student by completing a skills scan and by speaking personally to them. The data collected would enable us to plan a lesson around the individual or group taking into account abilities, disabilities or special requirements.
Planning and prepare learning and development need – Now that we are aware of the students needs we can progress to the next step of planning and preparing. There are many areas to address before planning starts. This ranges from the time, location, access, resources, risk assessments and health and safety. Different learning styles, VARK must also be considered and the variety of resources available to us. We must also be aware of the core standards and work to a set of core standards and the students must be conscious of time constraints ensuring the plan is completed on time.
Facilitate and Assess the students achievement – As tutors we must ensure the environment is suitable and the student has every opportunity to learn, understand and be supported and that our aims and objectives are clear and can be met. Feedback from the students is important to ensure we are on the right track and that the session is being carried out correctly. We can adapt the session accordingly to ensure all students receive the correct learning incorporating inclusion. It is our responsibility to maintain a safe and supportive learning environment for the student to enable the best from the individual. This will ensure the student is comfortable surroundings to be able to meet their needs and the criteria.
During the session we have to constantly monitor understanding, participation and assess progress. The assessment phase of the tutor/learning cycle lists continuous progress and review. We must give feedback regularly and it must be kept positive and constructive. All records must be kept relating to the individual, these include test results, reviews, attendance, initial assessments and feedback. The boundaries are that we must only assess what is relevant and valid, always allowing the student to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding without interference from us or outside sources not involved in the assessment.
Evaluate and improve learning and development – It is our responsibility to evaluate how the session went. With feedback it should be kept confidential as it usually contains personal views and information. There may also be a requirement to get other parties involved to promote the students learning. It is our responsibility to ensure the session meets the needs of the student and the criteria.
Giving effective feedback can build a leaners confidence, mature their understanding and motivation and also help them develop skills. Feedback, when accompanying formative assessment should concentrate on looking forward and on how to advance learning.
The following well-known acronym, CORBS, gives a good structure for feedback:
? Clear: know what you want to say and say it (or write it) clearly and concisely. Don’t try and cover everything: focus on the most important aspects.
? Owned: be clear that it is your opinion you are giving. So using ‘I believe’ instead of ‘you are’. If it’s not an opinion: e.g. incorrect use of dangerous equipment – say so.
? Regular: regular feedback reinforces the message; it also enables a ‘feedback rapport’ to be established. Feedback needs to be given as close to the event as possible so that students have time to act on your suggestions and apply it in time for the next piece of work..
? Balanced: feedback should be a balance of positives and negatives and focus on constructive criticism.
? Specific: after receiving feedback, students should be clear what they need to do differently and also what to continue to do well. So: ‘that’s fine’ or ‘50%’ with no comments are not helpful.
Giving constructive feedback is crucial, without it students cannot learn (Rogers, 2004).
When used to emphasise progress rather than failure, it motivates students, builds confidence and enables them to recognise mistakes as part of a process that brings them closer to their learning goals. It can help both tutor and student to identify further learning opportunities or action to be taken.
Sandwich Method of Feedback
The sandwich feedback method is a common three-step procedure to help tutors provide corrective feedback. The sandwich feedback method consists of praise followed by corrective feedback followed by more praise. In other words, the sandwich feedback method involves discussing corrective feedback that is “sandwiched” between two layers of praise
Feedback can be formal, such as after marking an assignment or carrying out an observation of practice, given informally during a lesson or on a 1-1 basis.
It can also be written or verbal.
Written feedback delivers a record of attainment and allows students to revisit comments later and recall progress. Although if unclear, it may be misconstrued or demoralising. Petty (2009) recommends that written feedback is detailed and constructive, and that tutors also talk to students about their work as assignments are handed back to clarify points.
Verbal feedback is timely, particularly when provided during a session. Encouraging/positive body language, facial expression, tone of speech and a caring style can help to create “positive reinforcement”, which can boost upcoming learning. Verbal feedback also needs to be given at the right time and place, as well as punctually to prevent the possibility of errors being repeated. Enough time needs to be given for student s to understand the feedback and compose any questions they may have