The Alma-Ata declaration was 30 years where health was declared an integral part of human right and primary health care was adopted as a means of providing health care,hoever access to equitable resources as well as basic health services affected the full implementation of the concept in developing countries.(Hall and Taylor, 2003)
Primary health care covers a series of services, ranging from education, sanitation, food and nutrition, vaccination as well as infectious diseases, the services aimed to work directly with the communities where the mindset was channeled to focus on preventive services rather than curative. (Hall and Taylor, 2003)
There had been a range of success and failure notice during the Alma-Ata, however it was difficult to determine them one by one however WHO measured services through the number of primary health care that were available, although developed countries achieved full coverage there were still differences and gaps notice in remote areas, same thing was as well in developing countries where inequitable coverage was notice among the rural and urban settings. (WHO,1988)
Primary health care was faced with a wide of challenges such as expert from the developed countries could not admit that primary health care services in developing countries would be their full responsibilities, the emerging of HIV/AIDs, natural disaster, wars and lack of political will. Aa results the concept of primary health care was not achieved fully(Hall and Taylor, 2003)
Millennium Development Goal (MDG)
The Millennium Development goal came to birth in September 2000 where 147 heads of state and world leaders from 147 countries adopted the declaration. (UN General Assembly document A/RES/55/2, Sept. 8, 2000.
The Millennium Development Goal official page clearly highlighted that “The goal have been commonly accepted as a framework for measuring development progress” (United Nation 2018)
Looking at the implementation of the MDG from the onsets it was unrealistic for many developing countries specially Africa to achieve the goals at the same level with the developed countries that had gone through a series of centaury to reach the level where they are( United Nations 2018) .
The 15 year struggle to achieve the millennium development goal had been noted successfully throughout the world; however, there were some challenges that still remain. The concluding MDG report affirms that the goal set were able to move people out of poverty, empower women and girls, improve health and well-being, and provide vast new opportunities for better lives. For example the number of people living below poverty line had dropped by 50% from 1990 to 2015 (Millennium and Goals, 2015).
Feasible action points for successful Achievement of the SDG Targets in the developing countries
The sustainable development goal was developed and endorsed by 193 United Nation Member state member’s state from the developed and developing countries in September .(United Nations, 2018)
The sustainable development goal is composed of 17 goals, however for the sake of this document much focus with be on the 10 goals above.
The UN secretary general Ban Ki-Moon noted that “the new agenda is promise by leaders to all people everywhere; it is an agenda for people to end poverty in its entire form agenda for the planet, our common home”
1-No Poverty and Zero Hunger:
When we talk of poverty there, is a need to look at the financial services and stability available to the people in need. Studies have shown that peoples financial stability are attained when the have access and are included in a financial system where they can get loans for learning, business and other projects, access to financial inclusion prevent people from falling back to poverty. For exempla people in rural India where able to reduce their poverty by 14% through access to a local bank(Swaminathan and Kesavan, 2016).
Poverty is not only lack of resources’ but rather access to social services such as good health facility, stable jobs, availability of clean water and access to decision making. Creation of jobs opportunities and stabilities could help alleviate poverty in developing countries, opportunities by private sector through micro and small enterprises are another way to end poverty(United Nations, 2018).
The united nation Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) states that farmers are prevented from having the large yields due to financial instability. In developing countries only about 10% of farmers have access to loans (FAO, 2015).
In Malawi farmers were able to make big investment through saving and managing their expenditures, digital saving also saved them from the cost, transport as well as time(Swaminathan and Kesavan, 2016).
3-Good health and Well being
Accessibility and provision of financial services such as insurance are favorable for achieving universal health coverage in developing countries, where people are not forced to sell their asset in order in benefit from a health service. Government need to focus much on policies and strengthening primary health care, understanding the social determinant of health help in prioritizing the health needs and formulate intervention(Tangcharoensathien et al,2015).
UNICEF advocates that children can be taken out of poverty when they are educated, teenage and girl’s marriage can be prevented through education. Learning opportunities and conducive environment out of war is required to attained quality education where government partner with international organization to formulate better education system (UNICEF, 2018)
Government need to invest more on education through the provision of better facilities for teachers and access to scholastic materials for students specially the ones in the rural areas.
Women and girls in developing countries must be given equal opportunity and access to education, social services and decision making. Societal laws that discriminated women’s right such as access to land and inheritance must be abolished. Existing laws and legal framework that discriminate women need to be changed (Sachs, 2015).
Women need to take active roles in peace building resolution not just as members but at the level of decision making. For instant in South Sudan the National Action plan (NAP) gives women the full right to take part in the current peace process as well as creating a conducive environment where they are protected(NAP,2015-20).
6- Clean Water and Sanitation:
To ensure clean and safe for drinking and other domestic work requires the use of technology for treatment, where by the treatment goes through a series of processes from biological to the chemical. Water should be protected from industrial waste and pollution through proper waste management (United Nation 2018).
Government needs to invest in town planning for proper drainage system as well as sanitation.Open defecation within communities’ should be abolished; more research and studies need to be done in order to improve on the quality of water (United Nation 2018)
7-Affordable and clean energy:
Access to clean and affordable energy constitutes the basis of the sustainable development goal, without energy there would be no development as well as use of technology and investment. Governments in developing countries need to invest more on Solar and wind energy which are cost effective and environmental friendly(United Nation 2018).
Economic growth is crucial for achieving all the sustainable development goals, governments need to focus on policies that are favorable and that can be sustained for a long period, economic growth require more focus on production, export and building of infrucstrure such as telecommunication and transport.
Promoting economic growth can be achieved through availability of jobs through entrepreneurship and developing the labor market. It is important to abolish forced labor and practice such as slavery and human trafficking; employment opportunity should target both men and women (United Nation 2018).
9-Indutry, Innovation and Infrastructure
To achieve sustained economic growth and decent work, economic and financial strategies are needed with dynamic employment rules such as public works and training organizations that support not only job creation but also job quality, modernization of skills and support comprising women and other marginalized groups. Furthermore, unified programs that identify a right and responsibility to work for both women and men and reorganize unpaid care and household work are necessary to achieve more equitable and sustainable outcomes for economy, society and families. (Dugarova and Gülasan, 2017)
10- Reduced Inequality:
Equal access to opportunities should be provided regardless of race, political affiliation and ethnicity. Policies and laws established should not be discriminatory against certain groups.
Developing countries have a long way to go in order the achieve sustainable development, more investment need to be done by Government in infrastructure, capacity building and political will. Partnership with developing partners such as in the field of health, education and water are paramount to achieve the goals.