Table of content TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc509252232 h – 1 -1

Table of content
TOC o “1-3″ h z u Chapter 1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc509252232 h – 1 -1.1Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252233 h – 1 -1.2Statement of Problem PAGEREF _Toc509252234 h – 5 -1.3 Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252235 h – 6 -1.4Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc509252236 h – 6 -1.5 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252237 h – 6 -1.6 Scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252238 h – 7 -1.7 Organization of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252239 h – 7 -1.8 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc509252240 h – 8 -Chapter 2 Literature Review and Related Theories PAGEREF _Toc509252241 h – 8 -2.1 FCUBE and Educational importance PAGEREF _Toc509252242 h – 8 -2.2 Historical Background of Education in Ghana PAGEREF _Toc509252243 h – 10 -2.3 Funding of formal Education in Ghana PAGEREF _Toc509252244 h – 14 -2.4 Empirical studies of FCUBE PAGEREF _Toc509252245 h – 16 -2.4.1 Implementation and Objectives of FCUBE PAGEREF _Toc509252246 h – 16 -2.4.2 FCUBE and Quality Education and achievements PAGEREF _Toc509252247 h – 18 -2.5 FCUBE policy strategies adopted PAGEREF _Toc509252248 h – 19 -2.5.1 Capitation Grant (School Fee Abolition) PAGEREF _Toc509252249 h – 19 -2.5.2 Impact of the capitation grant PAGEREF _Toc509252250 h – 20 -2.5.3 Early Childhood Development PAGEREF _Toc509252251 h – 20 -2.5.4 Gender Parity PAGEREF _Toc509252252 h – 21 -2.5.5 Nutrition and School Feeding PAGEREF _Toc509252253 h – 22 -2.6 Review of human Resource and Infrastructure for FCUBE implementation PAGEREF _Toc509252254 h – 22 -2.7 Defining variables and measurement PAGEREF _Toc509252255 h – 23 -2.7.1 Enrollment PAGEREF _Toc509252256 h – 23 -2.7.2 Performance PAGEREF _Toc509252257 h – 25 -2.7.3 Staffing and Infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc509252258 h – 27 -2.8 Theoretical perspective of the research PAGEREF _Toc509252259 h – 28 -2.8.1 Systems theory PAGEREF _Toc509252260 h – 28 -2.8.2 Welfare theory PAGEREF _Toc509252261 h – 29 -2.9 Theoretical framework PAGEREF _Toc509252262 h – 33 -2.10 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc509252263 h – 34 -Chapter 3 Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc509252264 h – 34 -3.1 Design of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252265 h – 34 -3.2 Collection of Data PAGEREF _Toc509252266 h – 34 -3.4 Area of study PAGEREF _Toc509252267 h – 35 -3.5 Sample Population and Sampling techniques of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252268 h – 35 -3.5.1 Sample Population of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252269 h – 35 -3.5.2 Sampling techniques of the study PAGEREF _Toc509252270 h – 35 -3.6 Method of data analysis PAGEREF _Toc509252271 h – 36 -Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Findings PAGEREF _Toc509252272 h – 36 -4.1 Government’s support to Basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District. PAGEREF _Toc509252273 h – 36 -4.1.1 Impact of Provision of free uniform on enrollment in basic schools PAGEREF _Toc509252274 h – 36 -4.1.3 Relationship between provision of adequate teaching equipment and pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252275 h – 38 -4.2 The District Education Directorate and the implementation of FCUBE policy PAGEREF _Toc509252276 h – 39 -4.2.1 Effects of District supervision of teachers on pupils performance PAGEREF _Toc509252277 h – 39 -4.2.2 Effects of staff strength and requisite skills on pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252278 h – 39 -4.2.3 Effects of staff attendance on pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252279 h – 40 -4.2.4 Impact of District In-service training for teachers on pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252280 h – 41 -4.3 Analysis of the influence of FCUBE policy on parents and pupils attitude towards Education PAGEREF _Toc509252281 h – 42 -4.3.1 Analysis of infrastructure and pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252282 h – 42 -4.3.2 Evaluation of the overall knowledge of parents on FCUBE and its objectives PAGEREF _Toc509252283 h – 43 -4.4 Analysis of FCUBE Motivation on teaching staff towards improvement of basic school Education in Ghana. PAGEREF _Toc509252284 h – 44 -4.4.1 Teachers’ understanding of FCUBE objectives to improve pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252285 h – 44 -4.4.2 Adequacy of human resource needs in the classroom towards pupils’ performance PAGEREF _Toc509252286 h – 45 -4.4.3 Staff perception of availability of teaching aids to achieve FCUBE objectives PAGEREF _Toc509252287 h – 46 -Chapter 5 Discussion, Conclusion, Limitation, Suggestions, Recommendations and Summary PAGEREF _Toc509252288 h – 46 -5.1 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc509252289 h – 46 -5.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc509252290 h – 48 -5.3 Implications PAGEREF _Toc509252291 h – 49 -5.4 Limitations PAGEREF _Toc509252292 h – 49 -5.5 Suggestions PAGEREF _Toc509252293 h – 50 -5.6 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc509252294 h – 50 -5.7 Summary PAGEREF _Toc509252295 h – 50 -Reference PAGEREF _Toc509252296 h – 51 –
Acknowledgement
Appendix

Chapter 1 IntroductionBackground of the study
In 1948, the Universal declaration of human rights asserted that everyone has the right to education ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Assembly;/Author;;Year;1948;/Year;;RecNum;34;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;1;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;34;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521017121″;34;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Assembly, UN General;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Universal declaration of human rights;/title;;secondary-title;UN General Assembly;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;UN General Assembly;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;1948;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;1. Over 40 years later, it was still evident that many people were being denied this basic human right. Indeed, the 1980s saw more backward than forward movement in most countries of the world ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Unagha;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;35;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;2;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;35;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521017669″;35;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Unagha, Amanze Onyebochi;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Implementing Universal Basic Education (UBE) through the strategic provision of school library services;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;2. It was at that point that a world conference on education for all was held in Jomtien, Thailand for the purpose of forging a global consensus and commitment to provide basic education for all ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Dike;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;36;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;3;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;36;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521017865″;36;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”;10;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Dike, Virginia W;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;School library facilities required for successful implementation of the Universal Basic Education in Nigeria;/title;;secondary-title;th Annual Conference of the Nigerian School Library Association, at the Children;apos;s Centre Library, UNN;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;23-26;/pages;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;3.

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Education, needless to say, is a priority sector in every well-meaning society ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jaiyeoba;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;37;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;4, 5;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;37;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521018194″;37;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Jaiyeoba, Adebola O;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Perceived impact of universal basic education on national development in Nigeria;/title;;secondary-title;International Journal of African ;amp; African-American Studies;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Journal of African ;amp; African-American Studies;/full-title;;/periodical;;volume;6;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Opoh;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;38;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;38;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521018438″;38;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Opoh, Fredrick Awhen;/author;;author;Okou, Femedein Timipre;/author;;author;Ikang, Rosemary Ani;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Universal Basic Education Programme for Global Competitiveness: A Need for Paradigm Shift;/title;;secondary-title;Journal of Education and Practice;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal of Education and Practice;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;1-6;/pages;;volume;6;/volume;;number;34;/number;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;isbn;2222-1735;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;4, 5. Burtch (2006), as cited by Jaiyeoba (2009) and Opoh (2015), referred to Education as a major force in economic, intellectual, social and cultural empowerment. Its value in bringing about character and attitudinal change ranks as important as its ability to reshape human potentials for desired development PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5CdXJ0Y2g8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA2PC9ZZWFyPjxS
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 4-6. The education given by the colonial masters was personalized towards white-collar job and this did not contribute meaningfully to the Ghanaian educational business endeavor according to critics of the system. This necessitated the idea of the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) by the then government of Ghana in 1961 (Education Act 1961). This too failed woefully.

Later in 1987, UPE was reintroduced in the country at national level by the J.J Rawlings’ Military Administration to provide free education to children at the primary school level. Unfortunately, because of several unanticipated problems, such as enrollment explosion, shortage of teachers, inadequate infrastructural facilities among others that emerged in the early stages of the implementation of the scheme, the policy failed to achieve the set objectives ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Nudzor</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>40</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>7</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>40</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521019355″>40</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Nudzor, Hope Pius</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An analytical review of education policy-making and implementation processes within the context of “Decentralized System of Administration” in Ghana</title><secondary-title>Sage Open</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Sage Open</full-title></periodical><pages>2158244014530885</pages><volume>4</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>2158-2440</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>7. At the advent of democratic governance, the government made education one of its priorities by introducing Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy. The FCUBE scheme was put in place to improve on the limitations of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1996 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Akyeampong</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>41</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>8</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>41</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521019816″>41</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Akyeampong, Kwame</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Revisiting free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana</title><secondary-title>Comparative Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Comparative Education</full-title></periodical><pages>175-195</pages><volume>45</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>0305-0068</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>8. The specific objectives of the FCUBE policy as stated by the Ministry of Education, Ghana 1996 are:
(i) Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion.

(ii) The provision of Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education for every Ghanaian child of school age.

(iii) Reducing drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system (through relevance, quality and efficiency).

(iv) Catering for the learning needs of young persons who for one reason or another have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education, and
(v) Ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate level of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for permanent learning ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Atta-Quayson</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>9</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521020919″>42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Generic”>13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Atta-Quayson, J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE)</title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><publisher>FCUBE Secretariat, Ghana Education Service, Accra, Ghana</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>9.

Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training or research ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Keengwe</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>10</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>10</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520854013″>10</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Keengwe, Jared</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Promoting active learning through the integration of mobile and ubiquitous technologies</title></titles><dates><year>2014</year></dates><publisher>IGI Global</publisher><isbn>1466663448</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>10. Education is also the key to creating, adapting and spreading knowledge but the gains in access to education have been unevenly distributed, with the poor seldom getting their fair share ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Staff</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>44</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>11, 12</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>44</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521022102″>44</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>World Bank Staff</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge for Development, 1998-1999</title></titles><dates><year>1998</year></dates><publisher>Oxford University Press, Incorporated</publisher><isbn>0195211189</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Todaro</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>45</RecNum><record><rec-number>45</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521022160″>45</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Generic”>13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Todaro, MP</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Economic Development: Michael P. Todaro, Stephen C. Smith</title></titles><dates><year>2009</year></dates><publisher>Harlow etc.: Addison-Wesley</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11, 12. Education, again, is fundamental to enhancing the quality of human life and ensuring social and economic progress. According to Sen (1999), it can add to value of production in the economy and also the income of the person who has been educated ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sen</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>46</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>13</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>46</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521023614″>46</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Generic”>13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sen, Amartya</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Freedom as development</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Oxford University Press, Oxford</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>13. Ensuring the right of education is a matter of morality, justice and economic sense (UNICEF, 1999). Ghana’s educational system has passed through many reforms over the years to improve its quality and also make it accessible to every child in the country. Akyeampong (2007) stated that in 1957, when Ghana attained independence, the Nkrumah administration decided to make education open to all ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Akyeampong;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;11;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;14;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;11;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520910054″;11;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Akyeampong, Kwame;/author;;author;Djangmah, Jerome;/author;;author;Oduro, Abena;/author;;author;Seidu, Alhassan;/author;;author;Hunt, Frances;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Access to basic education in Ghana: The evidence and the issues;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;14. To make education accessible to all children in Ghana, these legislations and policy initiatives including the Ten-year plan for educational development (1946), Accelerated Development Plan (1951) and the Education Act (1961) were implemented. The Accelerated Development Plan introduced a six-year free and compulsory basic education, which resulted in a massive increase in primary enrollment ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Amoako;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;47;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;15;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;47;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521024416″;47;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Amoako, Rosemary;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessing the effectiveness of the capitation grant to basic schools in Ghana: a case study of Oforikrom Sub-Metro;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;15. Though the policies mentioned worked to some extent, they could not yield much as expected in the educational system.
In the early 1970s, a committee was set to recommend reforms in the educational system of the country. This committee was chaired by Professor N. K. Dzobo of the University of Cape Coast. The committee concluded that primary education should be six years, three years Junior Secondary School and four years Senior Secondary School making pre-tertiary to be thirteen years. This reform reduced pre-tertiary education from seventeen years to thirteen years. The reforms abridged the time spent by students in school and in turn reduced the net expenditure on students by the government. Also, courses such as technical and vocational skill introduced were designed to provide students with practical skills that can equip them to become self-employed and also fit into any existing establishment. However, the policy did not work as expected due to the following problems associated with its implementation; most teachers did not know much about the subject areas, resources to support teaching and learning activities were not sufficient in the schools ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Amoako;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;47;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;15;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;47;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521024416″;47;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Amoako, Rosemary;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessing the effectiveness of the capitation grant to basic schools in Ghana: a case study of Oforikrom Sub-Metro;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;15.

By 1970, Ghana had one of the most highly developed education systems in Africa (World Bank, 2004). Whereas the gross enrollment ratios increased dramatically, one problem that arose was approximately 60% of teachers in the primary schools were untrained (MoE). The late 1970s and early 1980s, however, saw a sharp economic decline and the real value of government financing for education fell sharply from 6.4% of GDP in 1976 to 1.4% in 1983, and resulted in a near collapse of the education system and this affected the educational system in the country leading to decline in enrollment. By 1983 access to basic education and other levels of education were at their lowest ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Amoako;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;47;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;15;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;47;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521024416″;47;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Amoako, Rosemary;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessing the effectiveness of the capitation grant to basic schools in Ghana: a case study of Oforikrom Sub-Metro;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;15. To address the issues emanating from the reforms, successive governments were forced to the pursuit of policies aimed at expanding access to basic education. In the year 1987, another new educational committee was implemented which was chaired by Dr. E. Evans-Anfom of the university of Education, Winneba. The policy decision on the new structure was based on an earlier Government White Paper entitled “The New Structure and Content of Education” (MoE, 1974). The committee changed the structure of the educational system from seventeen years to twelve years at the pre-university level. Thus, six years primary, three years Junior Secondary, three years Senior Secondary education and a minimum of four years of tertiary education. The basic education level is supposed to be free and compulsory for every Ghanaian child of school –going age. The reform eliminated the middle school system and then also the Common Entrance used for the selection of students into secondary schools was also replaced by the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). Subjects like Agricultural Science, Pre –Technical and Pre-Vocational Skills were introduced as new curriculum contents by the reforms. The 1987 reform was very relevant to the development of the nation in that it would enable students to acquire training skills that would help them to engage in agriculture which is the back bone of Ghana to provide the needed raw materials to feed the industries and also provide adequate food for the nation ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Amoako;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;47;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;15;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;47;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521024416″;47;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Amoako, Rosemary;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessing the effectiveness of the capitation grant to basic schools in Ghana: a case study of Oforikrom Sub-Metro;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;15.

Inadequate funding of the education sector led to insufficient textbooks and other needed curriculum materials, lack of adequate supply of furniture and equipment. Also, low patronage of the school system by children of school- going age and, insufficient trained teachers were among challenges that affected the smooth running of the program. The 1992 constitution of the Republic of Ghana under Article 25(1) guarantees that all persons shall have the right to equal educational opportunities and facilities and that basic education shall be free, compulsory and available to all ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ghana;/Author;;Year;1992;/Year;;RecNum;49;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;16;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;49;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521026625″;49;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Government Document”;46;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Republic of Ghana;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Constitution of the Republic of Ghana;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1992;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;16. It was in line with this that the government of Ghana re-launched the policy of Free Compulsory Basic Education (FCUBE) in 1995 supported by the World Bank Primary School Development Project (PSDP). This program was aimed at getting more children into school. As a cost- sharing scheme, the FCUBE was designed to cover non-tuition fee. Article 38(2) of the constitution states that “The government shall within two years after parliament first meets after the coming into force of this constitution, draw up a program for implementation within the following ten years, for the provision of Free, Compulsory, Universal Basic Education” policy ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ghana;/Author;;Year;1992;/Year;;RecNum;49;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;16;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;49;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521026625″;49;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Government Document”;46;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Republic of Ghana;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Constitution of the Republic of Ghana;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1992;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;16.

FCUBE was introduced so that teachers’ involvement in curriculum development, in societal mobilization and in the overall educational decision-making process can be improved. The policy was also packaged to make the school environment learner friendly by providing appropriate forms of infrastructure, facilities and recognizing the professional autonomy of teachers and school administrators. With the introduction of Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, it is believed that development of Ghana will be accelerated because of inherent value in education. Attesting to this, Preece (2006) submitted that education is a proven contributor to reducing poverty ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Opoh</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>38</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>5, 17</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>38</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521018438″>38</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Opoh, Fredrick Awhen</author><author>Okou, Femedein Timipre</author><author>Ikang, Rosemary Ani</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Universal Basic Education Programme for Global Competitiveness: A Need for Paradigm Shift</title><secondary-title>Journal of Education and Practice</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Education and Practice</full-title></periodical><pages>1-6</pages><volume>6</volume><number>34</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>2222-1735</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Preece</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>50</RecNum><record><rec-number>50</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521027183″>50</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Preece, Julia</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Widening participation for social justice: poverty and access to education</title><secondary-title>Widening Access to Education as Social Justice</secondary-title></titles><pages>113-126</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Springer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>5, 17. As the UNESCO IIEP (2002:25) document states: Education has been shown to have an impact on individual workforce outcomes, yielded in a higher income, but the impact is greater than that ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Preece</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>50</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>17</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>50</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521027183″>50</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Preece, Julia</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Widening participation for social justice: poverty and access to education</title><secondary-title>Widening Access to Education as Social Justice</secondary-title></titles><pages>113-126</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Springer</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>17. Literacy and formal schooling are linked with reduced pregnancy rates among the youth, improved health and sanitation practices and an increased ability to access information and participate in various social and economic processes. Educated parents also tend to invest more in their children education, health/nutrition, and human capital measures which are important for their future well-being. The evidence indicates that basic education affects not only wages but also broader workforce outcome, such as participation in the formal labor market, work in more modern sectors, and (particularly for women) the ability to earn regular income from work.

Statement of ProblemFor any nation to minimize illiteracy, ignorance and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate the pace of national development, political consciousness and national integration, there is the need to make basic education compulsory and accessible to the general public. Having recognized this fact, Ghana introduced Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education about twenty-one years ago (as of now there has been no national record reliable and independent enough to depict the contribution of FCUBE to national development).

The FCUBE policy was introduced in order to take care of the large population of the disadvantaged groups, the rural community, the girl child, the disabled, and the phenomenal increase of boys’ dropout.

The extent to which FCUBE contributed to educational development in Atwima Kwanwoma District remains a subject to be investigated. This study therefore investigated the following research questions.

(1) Has the FCUBE policy improved pupils’ performance in basic school education in Atwima Kwanwoma District?
(2) Has the introduction of FCUBE policy led to improved infrastructure and staffing of basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District?
(3) Has the introduction of FCUBE policy enhanced school enrollment of students in the Atwima Kwanwoma District?
1.3 Objectives of the study
The study assessed the performance of Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education program in Atwima Kwanwoma District. Specifically, the study was intended to,
Determine the extent to which Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy has improved pupils’ performance in Atwima Kwanwoma District.

Ascertain the extent of improvement in infrastructure and staffing of basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District.

Determine the extent to which the introduction of FCUBE policy has enhanced school enrollment of students in the District.

Research QuestionsThe study investigated the following research questions.

(1) Has FCUBE policy improved pupils’ performance in basic school education in Atwima Kwanwoma District?
(2) Has the introduction of FCUBE policy led to improvement in infrastructure and staffing of basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District?
(3) Has the introduction of FCUBE policy has enhanced school enrollment of students in the District?
1.5 Significance of the studyThe study is very important to the development of basic school by ensuring that quality education is made accessible to pupils at that level. That is, the study serves as a guide to ensure that efficient allocation of resources for the protection of children’s rights in the country would be made. The findings of this work will enable policymakers and all other stakeholders to be convinced whether to continue to allot funds into such policies or not. It would also help to provide education that is affordable and accessible; especially to children who are financially disadvantaged. This would boost the morale, commitment and status of teachers as teachers become happy when they realize that their students do not encounter anything that inhibit their learning ability. It must be mentioned that the findings of the study would go a long way to determine as to whether Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and other educational philanthropists would have to give a readily financial and other material support to especially the downtrodden and less privileged students in basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District and Ghana as a whole.

Through this work, the government will see the importance of implementing universal basic education in Ghana especially in Atwima Kwanwoma District. Government will be made aware of the adequate strategies to be adopted in the implementation of the free and compulsory universal basic education policy (FCUBE) in Atwima Kwanwoma District like regular payment of teachers’ salary. The stakeholders will be aware of sustainable means of implementing the Free and Compulsory Universal Basic Education FCUBE in Atwima Kwanwoma District. Stakeholders will equally know the importance of utilizing both the materials and resources properly in the implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education policy in the society because through the policy they will acquire skills, beliefs, and facts that will help them to live in the community and be productive to themselves and the society in general.

1.6 Scope of the studyThe scope of this study covers the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy implementation from 2011 to 2016. It covered Ahenema Kokoben D/A Junior High School (J.H.S), Brofoyedru D/A J.H.S, Kotwi D/A J.H.S, Trede D/A J.H.S, Nkoranza D/A J.H.S and Bebu D/A J.H.S all in Atwima Kwanwoma District of the Ashanti Region. The participants of this study included district educational authorities, Ahenema Kokoben D/A J.H.S teachers and head teacher as well as the entire student body in the above-mentioned schools.

1.7 Organization of the studyThis study is organized into five (5) chapters. Chapter one (1) talks brief about the history of education, background and introduction of the Free and Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy whereas chapter two (2) has to do with the review of related literature on the topic and the related theories and models. Chapter three (3) focuses on the methodology employed in the study, Chapter four (4) has the analysis of the data obtained and discussion of the results and lastly, chapter five (5) presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations of the study.

Chapter 2 Literature Review and Related Theories2.1 FCUBE and Educational importanceGenerally, education is described as an act or experience that forms the mind, character or physical ability of an individual ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Hurst</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>18, 19</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520848821″>2</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hurst, Charles E</author><author>Gibbon, Heather M Fitz</author><author>Nurse, Anne M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Social inequality: Forms, causes, and consequences</title></titles><dates><year>2016</year></dates><publisher>Routledge</publisher><isbn>1134995849</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Obi</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520848706″>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Obi, Patricia Osorochi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Adler’s Social Interest: The Kpim of Social Order in Nigeria;/title;;secondary-title;The KPIM of Social Order: A Season of Social Uprising;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;The KPIM of Social Order: A Season of Social Uprising;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;147;/pages;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;isbn;147977796X;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;18, 19. It is helping someone learn how to think and how to solve problems. That is, as people see training as giving fish to someone, education on the other hand teaches one to fish. Armstrong (2006), defined education as “the development of the knowledge, values and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than the knowledge and skills relating to particular areas of activity” ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Armstrong;/Author;;Year;2014;/Year;;RecNum;3;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;20;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;3;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520849231″;3;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Armstrong, Michael;/author;;author;Taylor, Stephen;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Armstrong;apos;s handbook of human resource management practice;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2014;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Kogan Page Publishers;/publisher;;isbn;074946965X;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;20. Thus, the Global Partnership for Education remarked that Education is more than reading, writing, and arithmetic. To them “Education is one of the most important investments a country can make in its people and its future and is critical to reducing poverty and inequality” ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Citizen;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;4;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;21;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;4;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520850209″;4;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Online Multimedia”;48;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Global Citizen;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The value of education;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;pub-dates;;date;12th March, 2018;/date;;/pub-dates;;/dates;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/the-value-of-education/;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;21. To confirm the above statements, one can conveniently say that girls and boys, who learn to read, write and count will provide a better future for their families and countries. With improved education, many areas are affected positively. Thus, education has the power to make the world a better place ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Prensky;/Author;;Year;2016;/Year;;RecNum;5;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;22;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;5;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520851130″;5;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Prensky, Marc;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Education to better their world: Unleashing the power of 21st-century kids;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2016;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Teachers College Press;/publisher;;isbn;0807774944;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;22. Education is therefore, essential for everyone because it is an indispensable part of life both personally and socially. Finally, education is the back bone of every nation as scholars say.

The importance of education is undeniable due to its positive effect on human life and people need to study because it is one of the means that can help people gain knowledge and enlarge their view over the world. Apparently, people may become more useful and civilized if they are better educated. Thus, when an eye cast around, it could see the vast difference between residential areas where the people are educated and that of areas where the people are illiterate. In comparing developed countries to underdeveloped countries one can easily understand the importance of education.

Without education, one can imagine how life would have been. Education plays important role in our society. Human civilization thrives on education. As a matter of fact, everything we create today is based on the knowledge that we obtain throughout our life by way of education. The technology we see nowadays which had resulted in the invention of equipment and other devices are the results of education. Countries with high rate of education have gone high in technology and countries with low rate of education rely on the developed ones for their technology.

The main social objective of education is to complete the socialization process ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Jasapara;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;7;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;23, 24;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;7;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520852287″;7;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author; Madhav Jasapara;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Bharat City Guide Season 2: Education ;/title;;/titles;;edition;Edition 2013;/edition;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Sankaranarayanan;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;6;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;6;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520851830″;6;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Sankaranarayanan, B;/author;;author;Sindhu, B;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Learning and Teaching Nursing;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;publisher;JP Medical Ltd;/publisher;;isbn;9350258757;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;23, 24. The family gets the child, but the modern family tends to leave much undone in the socialization process. The school and other institutions have come into being in place of family to complete the socialization process ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Clement;/Author;;Year;2010;/Year;;RecNum;54;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;25;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;54;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521078948″;54;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Clement, I;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Sociology for nurses;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2010;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Pearson Education India;/publisher;;isbn;8131733262;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;25. Consequently, every child should be given the opportunity to learn and study because, the development of a country depends vastly on the standard of education and countries must do everything possible to improve its educational systems. Education gives people critical skills in thinking and tools to help them provide better for themselves and their families.

Again, it helps people work better and can create opportunities for sustainable and viable economic growth now and into the future. Furthermore, education helps fight the spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases, reduces mother and child mortality rate and helps improve health standards of the people. Education is very necessary for all of us and its implication and importance can be seen in every field of our life. Nations that gave importance to education in every field or sector in the country are ruling now. Have you ever thought why the 3rd world countries are suffering from poverty, unemployment and lower life standards? They are suffering because they did not and have not invested much in their educational infrastructure. It is often said that, ‘Knowledge is power’. Although there has always been a debate on this matter, the importance of education cannot be denied. The information we are constantly bombarded with, cannot be converted into knowledge without the catalyst called education. In an economy where knowledge is the most valuable commodity a person and a country have to offer, the best jobs will go to the best educated whether they live in the United States or India or China (US President Barack Obama, Washington D.C. (July 25th, 2009)) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Tienken;/Author;;Year;2016;/Year;;RecNum;8;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;26, 27;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;8;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520853221″;8;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Tienken, Ed HD;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Defying standardization: Creating curriculum for an uncertain future;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2016;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Rowman ;amp; Littlefield;/publisher;;isbn;1475815654;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Obama;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;55;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;55;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521080076″;55;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Online Multimedia”;48;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;President Barack Obama;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;President Obama Delivers Remarks on Education;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;pub-dates;;date;March 15, 2018;/date;;/pub-dates;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;26, 27. Thus, the importance of education is clearly emphasized through President Barack Obama’s address. He clearly stated that education is extremely crucial for holding a good job and for making a flourishing career. On an average, educated people have more meaningful and interesting jobs than those held by uneducated people. They are usually in a position to make decisions at work. This results in educated people have higher job satisfaction which leads to a better quality of life. Education helps us with many things, but most importantly, it empowers an individual to think, question, and see beyond the obvious. Human beings are born with a natural tendency to question. Education is the best way to satisfy our curiosity, without extinguishing the burning desire to learn and explore more ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Singh</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>9</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>28, 29</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>9</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520853841″>9</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Singh, Asheema</author><author>Akshay, Pooja</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Life Skill Integration In Personal Contact Programmes: Feedback Analysis Of Capacity Building Workshops For Tutors</title></titles><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>EduZenith</Author><RecNum>56</RecNum><record><rec-number>56</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521081652″>56</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Online Multimedia”>48</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>EduZenith</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An Age-Old Debate: Why Do We Need Education?</title></titles><dates></dates><urls><related-urls><url>https://eduzenith.com/why-do-we-need-education</url></related-urls></urls><custom1>2018</custom1><custom2>March 15, 2018</custom2></record></Cite></EndNote>28, 29.

2.2 Historical Background of Education in GhanaGhana has undergone important and striving educational reforms in her post-colonial era. As the end of the colonial era approached, demand for education became more pressing and the government in 1945 proposed a 10-year plan for further expansion of educational provision. In this plan, universal primary education was targeted to be achieved within a certain time frame. The next wave of the expansion plan was the 1951 Accelerated Development Plan (ADP) for Education, which also aimed to achieve universal primary education (UPE) for all. The main ADP strategy to improve access to basic education was to abolish tuition fees PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ba3llYW1wb25nPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwNzwvWWVh
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 30, 32, 33.

By 1970 Ghana had one of the most highly developed education systems in Africa ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>White</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>87</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>34</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>87</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521466139″>87</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>White, Howard</author><author>Masset, Edoardo</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Books, buildings, and learning outcomes: An impact evaluation of World Bank support to basic education in Ghana</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><publisher>World Bank Washington, DC</publisher><isbn>0821358847</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>34. Gross enrolment ratios increased dramatically, 60% of teachers in primary schools were trained, and the Ministry of Education (MOE) projected that all untrained teachers would be eliminated from the education system by 1975. The late 1970s and early 1980s, however, saw a sharp economic decline and the real value of government financing for education fell sharply from 6.4% of GDP in 1976 to 1.4% in 1983, and resulted in a near collapse of the education system PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BbXBpYWg8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDEzPC9ZZWFyPjxS
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In 1987, an Education Reform Program (ERP) to reverse the decline in the education system was launched in partnership with the World Bank and other international agencies. The major goals of the ERP were to expand ‘access to basic education, to improve the quality of basic education, to make education more relevant to Ghana’s socio-economic needs’, and to ensure sustainability of the reform program after the economic adjustment period. To date, the 1987 reforms have benefited the most in terms of investment to improve the access to and quality of basic education. Although this huge financial investment into the Ghanaian educational system has made an impact on educational performance in Ghana, many educational indicators suggest that growth has not been sustained PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ba3llYW1wb25nPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwMDwvWWVh
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 30, 31, 36.

An Education Reform Review Committee (ERRC) was set up in 1994 to review the achievements of the 1987 ERP. Following this review, in accordance with the World Bank and other international donors, in 1996, the ‘free compulsory universal basic education’ (FCUBE) policy reforms were introduced to address the weaknesses in the 1987 reforms. The FCUBE policy aimed to achieve UPE by 2005. UPE could however, not be achieved in 2005. Additionally, FCUBE policy sought to improve girls’ enrolment and has generally succeeded in achieving this target. Implementation of the FCUBE policy was supported by the World Bank Primary School Development Project (PSDP). According to the World Bank (2004) report two main areas of activity of the PSDP were identified:
1. Policy and management changes: (i) increasing instructional time, (ii) reducing student fees and levies, (iii) improving the skills and motivation of head teachers, (iv) community involvement in the selection of head teachers, (v) providing orientation for district officials and community leaders, (vi) supporting to school supervision, and (vii) conducting school mapping
2. Investment in physical infrastructure: (i) construction of classrooms, (ii) construction of head teachers’ housing, (iii) provision of roofing sheets. Communities were to be responsible for building the external walls (“cladding”) for pavilions constructed by the project ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;White;/Author;;Year;2004;/Year;;RecNum;87;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;34;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;87;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521466139″;87;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;White, Howard;/author;;author;Masset, Edoardo;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Books, buildings, and learning outcomes: An impact evaluation of World Bank support to basic education in Ghana;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2004;/year;;/dates;;publisher;World Bank Washington, DC;/publisher;;isbn;0821358847;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;34.

By 2003, over US$ 500 million of donor funding had been injected into Ghana’s education sector. Funding from the World Bank, the principal donor from 1986 to 1994 was used for school infrastructure development and rehabilitation, instructional materials for training pre- service teachers including the production of teacher materials and textbooks in primary and Junior High School. Other support from the World Bank went into head teachers’ housing ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ampiah;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;82;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;30, 34;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;82;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521464688″;82;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey;/author;;author;Kwaah, Christopher;/author;;author;Yiboe, Kofi Tsivanyo;/author;;author;Ababio, Bethel Tawiah;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Improving Quality Basic Education in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges of the School Performance Improvement Plan;/title;;secondary-title;CICE ?? 5 Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Educational Development: Final Report of the Phase II Research Results:(2) Education Quality Improvement and Policy Effectiveness;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;CICE ?? 5 Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Educational Development: Final Report of the Phase II Research Results:(2) Education Quality Improvement and Policy Effectiveness;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;73-98;/pages;;volume;5;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;White;/Author;;Year;2004;/Year;;RecNum;87;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;87;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521466139″;87;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;White, Howard;/author;;author;Masset, Edoardo;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Books, buildings, and learning outcomes: An impact evaluation of World Bank support to basic education in Ghana;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2004;/year;;/dates;;publisher;World Bank Washington, DC;/publisher;;isbn;0821358847;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;30, 34.

DFID, USAID, and the European Union also supported various aspects of the reforms. The FCUBE policy met with several problems and constraints. Management weaknesses have undermined its impact which included poor supervision both at system and school levels ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Fobih;/Author;;Year;1999;/Year;;RecNum;90;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;37;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;90;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521466965″;90;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Fobih, Dominic;/author;;author;Akyeampong, Kwame A;/author;;author;Koomson, Albert;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Ghana primary school development project: Final evaluation of project performance;/title;;secondary-title;Accra: Ministry of Education;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Accra: Ministry of Education;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;1999;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;37. According to the FCUBE 1999 implementation report, one of the important lessons learnt in the implementation of the FCUBE policy is that, ‘continuing to expand access to basic education and increasing physical inputs into the system are not effective unless the quality of activities at the school level improves significantly’ ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Education;/Author;;Year;1999;/Year;;RecNum;91;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;38;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;91;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521467416″;91;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Government Document”;46;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ministry of Education;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A background paper prepared for the Ministry of Education:National education forum;/title;;/titles;;pages;4;/pages;;dates;;year;1999;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Accra;/pub-location;;urls;;/urls;;custom1;Ministry of Education;/custom1;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;38.

Yet, the World Bank’s assessment of its role in improving educational access and quality through its support to both the 1987 and 2007 reforms is generally positive. It concludes from analysis of its contributions to the reforms that this had led to reversing the deterioration of the educational system, as the number of schools increased from 12,997 in 1980 to 18,374 in 2000, and that the basic school enrolment rate increased since the beginning of the reforms by over 10 percentage points between 1988 and 2001 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>White</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>87</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>34</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>87</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521466139″>87</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>White, Howard</author><author>Masset, Edoardo</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Books, buildings, and learning outcomes: An impact evaluation of World Bank support to basic education in Ghana</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><publisher>World Bank Washington, DC</publisher><isbn>0821358847</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>34.

Despite these appreciable gains reported by the World Bank, analysis of access indicators showed that there continue to be difficulties in reaching a significant proportion of children who do not enroll at all. In particular, gains made in enrolment have been difficult to sustain throughout the 9-year basic education cycle. The World Bank admits that, improving the quality and quantity of education infrastructure (i.e. classrooms) is an important strategy but is not by itself adequate. More needs to be done to ensure equitable access to quality basic education.

In 2003, the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) issued an Education Strategic Plan (ESP) for the period 2003-2015. The new ESP focused on the achievement of Universal Basic Completion, whose aim was for all enrolled students to complete 6 years of Primary and 3 years of Junior High School education. This is a more ambitious goal than mere Universal ‘Primary’ Completion (UPC). Accordingly, the government’s goals have been revised to 100% completion for primary education to be achieved in 2012 so that UBC would be attained by 2015. Gender Parity was scheduled to be achieved by the end of 2005. This target could however not be achieved ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Akyeampong;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;11;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;14, 30;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;11;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520910054″;11;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Akyeampong, Kwame;/author;;author;Djangmah, Jerome;/author;;author;Oduro, Abena;/author;;author;Seidu, Alhassan;/author;;author;Hunt, Frances;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Access to basic education in Ghana: The evidence and the issues;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Ampiah;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;82;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;82;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521464688″;82;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey;/author;;author;Kwaah, Christopher;/author;;author;Yiboe, Kofi Tsivanyo;/author;;author;Ababio, Bethel Tawiah;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Improving Quality Basic Education in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges of the School Performance Improvement Plan;/title;;secondary-title;CICE ?? 5 Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Educational Development: Final Report of the Phase II Research Results:(2) Education Quality Improvement and Policy Effectiveness;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;CICE ?? 5 Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Educational Development: Final Report of the Phase II Research Results:(2) Education Quality Improvement and Policy Effectiveness;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;73-98;/pages;;volume;5;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;14, 30.

A major achievement in the Ghanaian education system is that 18 months after the inception of the ESP, good progress had been made in terms of access across many areas of the sector. In particular, enrolment rates have risen in primary, JHS and post basic sub-sectors. These have, in general, led to improved Gender Parity Indicators (GPI), Gross Enrolment Rates (GER), and survival and completion rates at the national level. Primary school enrolment growth was sustained at 3.5% in 2003-04, with an overall growth of 8.6% between 2001-02 and 2003-04. This resulted in a significant increase in students enrolled from 2.72 million to 2.96 million over the period from 2001-2004. Primary enrolment growth for girl students was particularly positive with increases of 3.2% in 2003-04 and 9.3% over the period 2001-02 to 2003-04. The significant increases in enrolment outstripped the projected population growth, estimated at 2.7% per year, and as a result the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) increased from 84% to 86% (female increase from 80% to 83%, male increase from 87% to 90%) over the two year period PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BbXBpYWg8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA4PC9ZZWFyPjxS
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 30, 39.

Overall, a significant increase in enrolment at basic level was achieved partly due to the introduction of FCUBE policy and Capitation grants. However, there appeared a large demand for education infrastructure, classrooms, textbooks and trained teachers which had to be met before quality of education could be achieved. From 2005, the Participatory Learning Action (PLA) program has provided schools with the assistance to identify their needs in delivery of the educational services, such as upgrading and examination of school performance. So far, the program has been implemented in more than 35 districts. Communities are encouraged to draw School Performance Improvement Plans (SPIP) to be able to manage their school effectiveness. To improve the quality of instruction, teacher training, especially at the JHS (junior high schools) level, was held with special science tutors dispatched to Colleges of Education (COE) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ampiah;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;82;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;30;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;82;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521464688″;82;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey;/author;;author;Kwaah, Christopher;/author;;author;Yiboe, Kofi Tsivanyo;/author;;author;Ababio, Bethel Tawiah;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Improving Quality Basic Education in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges of the School Performance Improvement Plan;/title;;secondary-title;CICE ?? 5 Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Educational Development: Final Report of the Phase II Research Results:(2) Education Quality Improvement and Policy Effectiveness;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;CICE ?? 5 Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Educational Development: Final Report of the Phase II Research Results:(2) Education Quality Improvement and Policy Effectiveness;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;73-98;/pages;;volume;5;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;30.

According to the Government of Ghana (GES, 2006), one of the main reasons that children in Ghana do not attend school is that their parents simply cannot afford to pay the levies charged by the schools. Despite the policy of fee-free tuition in basic schools, many districts charge levies as a means of raising funds, for example, for school repairs, and cultural and sporting activities. This has the effect of deterring many families, particularly the poorest from sending their children to school. The Ministry of Education has therefore set up a Capitation Grant Scheme through DFID funding for all public schools, which commenced in the 2005/2006 academic year, whereby every Basic School receives an amount of GHS3.00 per pupil enrolled which has now been increased to GHS4.50. It is the belief of the Government of Ghana (GoG) that this would serve to remove the financial barrier created by these levies, and more than compensate the schools for any loss of revenue they face as a result ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Amoako;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;47;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;15, 40, 41;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;47;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521024416″;47;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Amoako, Rosemary;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessing the effectiveness of the capitation grant to basic schools in Ghana: a case study of Oforikrom Sub-Metro;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Ekpe;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;94;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;94;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521468294″;94;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ekpe, Isaac-Rockson K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;ABOLITION OF SCHOOL FEES IN GHANAIAN BASIC SCHOOLS: QUALITY ISSUES AT POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION LEVEL;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Pajibo;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;93;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;93;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521468212″;93;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Pajibo, Edison;/author;;author;Tamanja, Emmanuel MJ;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Influence and Challenges of the Capitation Grant on Education Delivery in Basic Schools in Ghana;/title;;secondary-title;Asian Journal of Education and Training;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Asian Journal of Education and Training;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;53-63;/pages;;volume;3;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;15, 40, 41.

The utilization of the Capitation Grant has been designed to empower the schools to effectively use financial resources to plan and carry out school quality improvement activities under the “School Performance Improvement Plan” (SPIP). It is the expectation of the GoG that the process of planning activities would be participatory (involving head teachers, teachers, SMCs and PTAs) and transparent. The grant is therefore expected to serve as an opportunity to help build school level capacity to effectively implement fiscal decentralization which is a long-term goal of the Government of Ghana as well as help implement the SPIP to improve the quality of education in schools. The SPIP was therefore introduced as a condition for the allocation and utilization of money to the schools PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj4oR05BKTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDU8L1llYXI+PFJl
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2.3 Funding of formal Education in GhanaYears ago, the funding of education in Ghana had been accomplished through school fees, grants from the government and other voluntary contributions by parents and guardians.

Though education receives the greatest portion of annual budgets, it still remains inadequately funded due to large enrollment numbers and high cost of equipment. Since Ghana introduced the Universal Basic Education (UBE), the Government has consistently spent a large percentage of her annual budgets on education which still remains inadequate to meet the growing demands of the yearly enrollment ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Anti;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;57;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;44, 45;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;57;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521082808″;57;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Electronic Article”;43;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Peter Partey Anti;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Pre-empting the education sector budget for 2018 – An analysis;/title;;tertiary-title;Ghanaweb.com;/tertiary-title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Ghana;/pub-location;;publisher;GhanaWeb;/publisher;;urls;;related-urls;;url;https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Pre-empting-the-education-sector-budget-for-2018-An-analysis-599860;/url;;/related-urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Canagarajah;/Author;;Year;2001;/Year;;RecNum;58;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;58;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521082963″;58;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Canagarajah, Sudharshan;/author;;author;Ye, Xiao;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992-98: Issues of Equity and Efficienty;/title;;/titles;;volume;2579;/volume;;dates;;year;2001;/year;;/dates;;publisher;World Bank Publications;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;44, 45. In recognition of the enormous problem of inadequacy of the educational funding, the Government publicized the Ghana Education Trust (GET) fund.

The Government and local government, parents-teachers association, non-governmental organization and local communities provide funding for education at the basic school level. The government has primary responsibility for education but the funding levels are very low. Funding allocations from the Government have remained unchanged, despite the high rise of annual per pupil costs. The total public funds allocated to basic education have been almost fully taken by the government under the free compulsory basic education policy with only some little charges from the school administration ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Oduro;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;59;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;46;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;59;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521083964″;59;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Oduro, Abena D;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Basic education in Ghana in the post-reform period;/title;;secondary-title;Accra: Centre for Policy Analysis;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Accra: Centre for Policy Analysis;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;46.

There are differentiated funding allocations based on the formula used for the poor and the rich situations as part of addressing inequities in the country. The difference between rural and urban areas in terms of expenditure is high. On average, the personnel costs in rural areas are as high as 99 percent of the budget allocations. In urban areas, there seems to be slightly more funds in the budget for minor expenses. Local communities contribute supplemental funds and there is also a difference between contributions made by urban and rural communities. Since the urban communities may contribute more as compared with the rural communities ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Oduro;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;59;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;46, 47;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;59;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521083964″;59;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Oduro, Abena D;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Basic education in Ghana in the post-reform period;/title;;secondary-title;Accra: Centre for Policy Analysis;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Accra: Centre for Policy Analysis;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Thompson;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;60;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;60;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521084128″;60;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Thompson, Nii Moi;/author;;author;Casely-Hayford, Leslie;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The financing and outcomes of education in Ghana;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;46, 47.

Furthermore, in funding the primary and secondary schools, the government contributes the lion’s share with the local government as contributors. Social youth clubs and philanthropist have been assisting in the task of funding education through donating some blocks of classrooms or dormitory building and awarding of scholarships to the needy students.

The government though has accepted the responsibilities for the Universal Basic Education (UBE), its funding and management should not be left to her alone ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Azuka</Author><Year>1991</Year><RecNum>52</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>48, 49</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>52</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521028655″>52</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Azuka, Eo B</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Funding business education project by the year 2000</title><secondary-title>Business Education Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Business Education Journal</full-title></periodical><pages>43-48</pages><volume>2</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1991</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ugwuanyi</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>51</RecNum><record><rec-number>51</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521028627″>51</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Thesis”>32</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ugwuanyi, Michael Edozie</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Impact Of Universal Basic Education (UBE) On Educational Development In Enugu State; A Case Study Of Nsukka Local Government Area</title></titles><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>48, 49. She opined that workshops should be mounted at the local level of identify activities that could be carried out by the community, the teachers, the pupil and the Parents-Teachers Association to generate some resources in cash or kind that could help complement the government effort on Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE).

The following according to Ugwuanyi (2015) are alternative ways by which education can be funded.
(i) Voluntary agency contributions and donations: this is done through contributions and donations from voluntary agencies. It could be those cases where the schools were formerly mission schools where rich foreign and local missions and individuals were involved. School authorities could gainfully exploit this opportunity to their best advantage.

(ii) Private sector contacts: these primary and junior high schools that have successful private and public companies within their catchments areas could make contacts with these firms for assistance as the need for these arises. Since these companies have a policy of assisting communities and institutions within their area of operation on a regular basis, the school should maintain a good public relations image with the community and the institutions for a free flow of assistantship to them.

(iii) Proceeds from school farm: schools with large portions of land for cultivation should practice commercial agriculture. Though a part of the crops harvested will be shared or sold to teachers at reduced rate where possible crops like cassava and maize or the crop of the area should be cultivated in large quantities for sale to the public ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ugwuanyi</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>51</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>49</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>51</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521028627″>51</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Thesis”>32</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ugwuanyi, Michael Edozie</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Impact Of Universal Basic Education (UBE) On Educational Development In Enugu State; A Case Study Of Nsukka Local Government Area</title></titles><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>49.

Finally, the Government of Ghana should through education collaborate with other developed countries for support, suggestion and recommendation on how to fund or get financial assistance to its education.

2.4 Empirical studies of FCUBE
2.4.1 Implementation and Objectives of FCUBEThe FCUBE policy is a constitutional requirement and a comprehensive sector-wide program designed to provide good quality basic education for all children of school-going age (i.e. from 5 to 13 years) in Ghana (Ministry of Education (MoE) 1996) ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Atta-Quayson</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>9</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521020919″>42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Generic”>13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Atta-Quayson, J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE)</title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><publisher>FCUBE Secretariat, Ghana Education Service, Accra, Ghana</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>9. The acronym FCUBE was derived from the wording of Chapter 6, Section 38, Subsection 2 of the Fourth Republican Constitution of 1992 of Ghana whose formulation and passage into law gave rise to the initiation of the FCUBE program (see extract 1 in the appendix for the actual wording of the 1992 Constitution).

The 1992 Republican Constitution of Ghana came into effect officially on the 7 January, 1993 and in line with the constitutional provision enshrined within the Constitution itself, the-then government of the National Democratic Congress (NDC), through the MOE and the Ghana Education Service (GES), came out in April 1996 with a policy document to implement the FCUBE policy officially. The policy implementation process took off in 1996 and was expected to have been completed by 2005. At the heart of FCUBE was government’s commitment to: make schooling from basic stage 1 through 9 (6–14 years), free, compulsory and universal for all school age children by the year 2005; improve the quality of teaching and learning: recognizing the fact that 22% of children of school-going age (that is, P1–P6) were not in school, 29% of students in Junior Secondary School (now Junior High School) were not in school and that there were less vacancies for students who qualify to enter Senior Secondary School (now Senior High School) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Atta-Quayson;/Author;;Year;1996;/Year;;RecNum;42;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;9, 50;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;42;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521020919″;42;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Generic”;13;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Atta-Quayson, J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE);/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1996;/year;;/dates;;publisher;FCUBE Secretariat, Ghana Education Service, Accra, Ghana;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Quashigah;/Author;;Year;2001;/Year;;RecNum;53;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;53;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521029728″;53;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Quashigah, EK;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Report of the study on the constitutional and legal framework for the right to pre-tertiary education: an MOE/GES study: conducted with assistance from UNICEF;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2001;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Ghana Education Service/UNICEF;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;9, 50. With financial assistance from the World Bank, the FCUBE policy implementation focused on two main activities. On the demand side, investments were channeled to support education policy and management changes with key areas targeted including: increasing instructional time, reducing fees and levies, improving head teachers’ management skills and motivation levels and improving school supervision. On the supply side, investments were focused primarily on improving physical infrastructure and increasing the number of school places through the large-scale construction of additional classrooms and schools ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Akyeampong</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>41</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>8</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>41</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521019816″>41</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Akyeampong, Kwame</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Revisiting free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana</title><secondary-title>Comparative Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Comparative Education</full-title></periodical><pages>175-195</pages><volume>45</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>0305-0068</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>8. These activities were re-developed into an ‘FCUBE’ implementation plan which adopts a range of strategies often referred to as the objectives of the ‘FCUBE’ program. These strategies revolve around three main components namely:
Improving quality of teaching and learning
Improving management efficiency
Improving access and participation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Atta-Quayson</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>42</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>9</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>42</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521020919″>42</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Generic”>13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Atta-Quayson, J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE)</title></titles><dates><year>1996</year></dates><publisher>FCUBE Secretariat, Ghana Education Service, Accra, Ghana</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>9.

From the year 2000 onwards, owing largely to Ghana’s participation and endorsement of the Millennium Development Goals agreement in Dakar in 2000 and other global education for all policy imperatives, new policy initiatives intended to strengthen and revitalize the FCUBE policy implementation have been introduced. Notable among these policies are the ‘capitation grant’, the ‘school feeding program’, the ’11-year basic education policy’ and the ‘free uniforms’ and ‘exercise books’ initiatives ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Atta-Quayson;/Author;;Year;1996;/Year;;RecNum;42;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;9, 50;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;42;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521020919″;42;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Generic”;13;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Atta-Quayson, J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE);/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1996;/year;;/dates;;publisher;FCUBE Secretariat, Ghana Education Service, Accra, Ghana;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Quashigah;/Author;;Year;2001;/Year;;RecNum;53;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;53;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521029728″;53;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Quashigah, EK;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Report of the study on the constitutional and legal framework for the right to pre-tertiary education: an MOE/GES study: conducted with assistance from UNICEF;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2001;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Ghana Education Service/UNICEF;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;9, 50. The ‘capitation grant’ concept entails giving 480 Ghana cedis (the equivalent of a little over 100 United States dollars) by government to each child per year (International Journal of Research ; Method in Education 181) to offset the burden of the ‘private’ cost of education on parents or guardians.

As aptly noted by Agbenyaga (2007) cited by Nudzor (2013), the capitation grant concept is designed to reinforce the existing FCUBE policy through attracting and retaining children in school ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Nudzor;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;61;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;51;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;61;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521084755″;61;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Nudzor, Hope Pius;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Unearthing the discursive shift in the ‘fCUBE’policy implementation in Ghana: using critical discourse analysis;/title;;secondary-title;International Journal of Research ;amp; Method in Education;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Journal of Research ;amp; Method in Education;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;179-201;/pages;;volume;36;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1743-727X;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;51. A total amount of 95 billion cedis, an equivalent of US$10.4 million, is reported to have been allocated for the capitation grant in the 2006 fiscal year (GoG 2006). The ‘school feeding program’ provides at least a decent meal a day for vulnerable school children in deprived settings whilst the ’11-year basic education policy’ has extended basic education in Ghana from 9 to 11 years (comprising 2 years kindergarten; 6 years of primary schooling and 3 years of Junior High School). The ‘free uniform’ and ‘free exercise books initiatives’, like the capitation grant concept, are intended to make primary education really ‘free’ by off-setting the private costs of education on poor and poverty-stricken families ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Nudzor;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;62;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;52, 53;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;62;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521085528″;62;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Nudzor, Hope Pius;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;An analytical review of the changing facets of Ghana;apos;s education policy discourse (s);/title;;secondary-title;Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies (JCEPS);/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies (JCEPS);/full-title;;/periodical;;volume;15;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1740-2743;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Anamoah-Mensah;/Author;;Year;2004;/Year;;RecNum;63;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;63;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521085736″;63;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Generic”;13;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Anamoah-Mensah, J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;White paper on the report of the education reform review committed;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2004;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Accra: Ghana Publishing Corporation;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;52, 53.

Ironically however, a critical review of the FCUBE policy documents in its 16th year of implementation suggests that the policy guidelines and strategies do not appear consistent with the overall policy aims and/or goals ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Akyeampong;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;41;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;8;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;41;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521019816″;41;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Akyeampong, Kwame;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Revisiting free compulsory universal basic education (FCUBE) in Ghana;/title;;secondary-title;Comparative Education;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Comparative Education;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;175-195;/pages;;volume;45;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0305-0068;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;8. For example, whereas the 1992 Republican Constitution (from which the FCUBE policy derives the wording of its title) talks of free, compulsory and universal basic education provision for all Ghanaian children of school-going age, the documents produced as part of the implementation strategy (i.e. after the formal initiation of the policy in 1996) appear to be emphasizing the discourse of economic change and its rhetoric of ‘skills for the world of work. In other words, a critical review of the FCUBE policy documents reveals a significant disjuncture or disconnect between the policy intentions and purposes, and the strategies and guidelines designed to assist implementation PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ba3llYW1wb25nPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwOTwvWWVh
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 7, 8, 51, 52, 54. Through the analysis of selected extracts from key documents on the FCUBE policy, this article purports to trace and document this shift in policy direction and language of implementing the policy as one of the teething issues confronting the realization of the FCUBE aims and objectives. This is done with a view to deepening understanding of the constraints to universal primary education provision in sub-Saharan Africa and to show (through the analyses) the ways by which these issues could be re-conceptualized ideologically for mediation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>THUNDER</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>64</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>55</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>64</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521086343″>64</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Thesis”>32</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thunder, Bay</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Restructuring Education in Ghana; A Case for Reconceptualizing Educational Aims</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Lakehead University</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>55.

2.4.2 FCUBE and Quality Education and achievementsThe overall responsibility of the Ministry of Education is to ensure quality within the system, to encourage and initiate innovations, to ensure that better policies are implemented and to ensure that the schools maintain maximum standards of acceptable educational practice. The public perception is that the quality of education offered is low and that standards have dropped. These perceptions are based on the lack of adherence to acceptable educational practice. Teacher’s qualifications are low. The learning environment does not promote effective learning. Basic facilities, teaching and learning resources are generally not available. Teacher-to-pupil ratio is high, general performance in examination is poor and the graduates have low levels of competencies in the work environment.

A detailed survey commissioned by the government of Ghana in partnership with UNICEF and UNESCO in 1995 confirmed that the quality of education program offered at the primary school level was low. Three competencies were measured namely; literacy, numeracy and life skills. The level of numeracy competence was found to be generally low and performance in literacy was the worst amongst the three competencies measured. The pupils who performed better in life skill learnt through the curriculums as well as those that were acquired outside the school environment.

Teacher’s qualification also impacted directly on quality of education. There are attempts to improve the level of qualification amongst teachers. The Teachers Certificate ‘A’ is gradually been fading out as a minimum requirement for teaching. The number of teachers with Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) has increased and the country seems to be moving forwards achieving a goal of having the DBE as a minimum qualification for teaching in the basic schools. There are few ongoing staff development programs that seems to be effective. The inspectorate system has not included staff development as part of its activities. The teacher education programs at pre-service levels have been criticized for being too theoretical and for their lack of a sound practical base practice.

2.5 FCUBE policy strategies adopted2.5.1 Capitation Grant (School Fee Abolition)Determined to get more children into school, the Government of Ghana, under the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy in 1996, included a cost-sharing scheme to cover non-tuition fees, under which parents were expected to bear limited expenses. More importantly, no child is to be turned away for non-payment of fees. But the initiative did not work. Although Ghana’s school enrollment rates are high compared to some other African countries, a persistent 40 per cent of children between 6 and 11 years of age remained out of school as of 2003 ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Adamu-Issah;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;13;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;56;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;13;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925877″;13;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Adamu-Issah, Madeez;/author;;author;Elden, L al;/author;;author;Forson, Micheal;/author;;author;Schrofer, Tamar;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Achieving universal primary education in Ghana by 2015: A reality or a dream;/title;;secondary-title;UNICEF, New York;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;UNICEF, New York;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;56.

One of the main reasons why these children did not attend school was that their parents could not afford to pay the levies charged by the schools. Despite the policy of fee-free tuition in basic schools, many districts charged levies as a means of raising funds, for example, for school repairs, cultural and sporting activities. This had the effect of deterring many families, particularly the poorest, from sending their children, especially girls, to school.

To meet the MDG goals for education and national targets established in the 2003-2015 Education Strategic Plan, the Government has taken a bold step forward by abolishing all fees charged by schools and also providing schools with a small grant for each pupil enrolled. The program was first piloted (with World Bank support) in Ghana’s 40 most deprived districts in 2004. Overall enrollment rose by an impressive 14.5 percent; enrollment gains for pre-school were particularly significant (over 36 per cent). This success led to the nationwide adoption of what is known as the ‘Capitation Grant’ system in early 2005. Under this system, every public kindergarten, primary school and junior secondary school receives a grant of about $3.30 (30,000 cedis) per pupil per year. Schools are not permitted to charge any fees to parents ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Adamu-Issah</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>56</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925877″>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Adamu-Issah, Madeez</author><author>Elden, L al</author><author>Forson, Micheal</author><author>Schrofer, Tamar</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Achieving universal primary education in Ghana by 2015: A reality or a dream</title><secondary-title>UNICEF, New York</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>UNICEF, New York</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>56.

2.5.2 Impact of the capitation grantThe decision to replace school fees with capitation grants had a positive impact on many enrollment-related figures during the 2005/06 academic year:
• Primary school gross enrollment rose by nearly 10 per cent, bringing total primary enrollment to 92.4 per cent nationwide. Primary Net Enrollment increased from 62 percent to 69 percent.

• Every region in the country experienced a rise in enrollment; Northern Region (where rates were lowest) experienced the largest increase.

• Overall enrollment in basic school increased by 16.7 per cent in the 2005/06 school year compared to 2004/05 according to Association for Development of Education in Africa (ADEA), Biennale, 2006
• Enrollment of girls increased slightly more than that of boys (18.1 per cent vs. 15.3 percent) according to GSS MACRO, MOH, USAID, UNICEF, “Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006”, Preliminary Report, February 2007.

2.5.3 Early Childhood DevelopmentEarly Childhood Education (ECD) has increasingly been recognized as the key to preparing children for a successful primary school experience and will over time improve internal efficiency of the education system as a result of reduced repetitions and drop-out rates and an increase of the number of children starting primary education when they are six years old. It will also result in increased learning outcomes and opportunities for children to continue their education after primary and secondary education and beyond, thus improving the quality of human resources development. ECD also assist in freeing older siblings, especially girls, to go to school instead of looking after younger children. In short, investing in kindergarten (KG) education has a high return on investment and can make an important contribution to achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2 and 3.
In 2004, the Government of Ghana approved a National Early Childhood Development (ECD) policy. In addition to this, the incorporation of two years of kindergarten education into the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy as well as the introduction of the capitation grant has had an immediate and substantial impact on enrollment. The highest increase is recorded at kindergarten level with an increase in enrollment of 38.5 per cent in 2005 compared to the previous academic year according to the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, EMIS Project, “Education Statistics Presentation 2005/2006 Census”, 2006. The increase in public kindergarten was 71 per cent while enrollment reduced to 25 per cent in private kindergartens. This shift was also due to the expansion of kindergartens attached to public primary schools ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Adamu-Issah</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>56</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925877″>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Adamu-Issah, Madeez</author><author>Elden, L al</author><author>Forson, Micheal</author><author>Schrofer, Tamar</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Achieving universal primary education in Ghana by 2015: A reality or a dream</title><secondary-title>UNICEF, New York</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>UNICEF, New York</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>56.

2.5.4 Gender Parity
In order for Ghana to achieve universal access to quality basic education, it is equally important for the country to achieve gender parity in education. Considerable strides have been made in the country towards increasing the number of girls attending primary school.

In 1997 a Girls’ Education Unit was established as part of the Basic Education Division of the Ghana Education Service to co-ordinate the implementation of activities related to girls’ education. As part of the decentralization of the Education service delivery in each of the 10 Regions and 138 Districts in Ghana, Regional and District Girls’ Education Officers were appointed to co-ordinate activities and improve access for girls to the education system ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Adamu-Issah;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;13;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;56;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;13;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925877″;13;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Adamu-Issah, Madeez;/author;;author;Elden, L al;/author;;author;Forson, Micheal;/author;;author;Schrofer, Tamar;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Achieving universal primary education in Ghana by 2015: A reality or a dream;/title;;secondary-title;UNICEF, New York;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;UNICEF, New York;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;56.

Initiatives like World Food Program (WFP) and the Catholic Relief Service (CRS) that support school feeding programs whereby girls are targeted in poor performing areas, like Upper East and Upper West regions, have resulted in narrowing the gap between girls and boys gross enrollment figures in these areas according to SNV, Briefing Paper, “Girls participation in education, findings from a multi-stakeholder context analysis in Northern Ghana”, No.03, July 2006. UNICEF also contributed to these results with the assistance to 15 districts with lowest Gender Parity Index to improve enrollment and retention of girls. Enrollment figures for girls in the Upper East and Upper West grew by 31.4% and 26.1% respectively compared to the national average of 12.8% ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Adamu-Issah;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;13;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;56, 57;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;13;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925877″;13;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Adamu-Issah, Madeez;/author;;author;Elden, L al;/author;;author;Forson, Micheal;/author;;author;Schrofer, Tamar;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Achieving universal primary education in Ghana by 2015: A reality or a dream;/title;;secondary-title;UNICEF, New York;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;UNICEF, New York;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Atta;/Author;;Year;2015;/Year;;RecNum;14;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;14;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925941″;14;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Atta, George Prince;/author;;author;Manu, Jacob;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Ghana School Feeding Program: A Retrospective Review;/title;;secondary-title;International Journal of Innovative Research and Development;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Journal of Innovative Research and Development;/full-title;;/periodical;;volume;4;/volume;;number;8;/number;;dates;;year;2015;/year;;/dates;;isbn;2278-0211;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;56, 57. The abolition of school fees in all basic schools in 2005 also had a direct effect on girls’ enrollment rates.

2.5.5 Nutrition and School FeedingGetting children in school is one thing and keeping them in school and making sure they learn is also another. While schooling, the health and nutritional status of children are of key importance hence the necessity of ensuring the feeding program operates effectively. The initiation of Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP) under the piloting phase was launched in 2005 under NEPAD “Home Grown” SFP concept, which aims to contribute not only to the improvement of the education service delivery but also to agricultural development and the reduction of malnutrition among school-age children. Locally produced food will be produced to feed school children, school gardens will be established, agriculture and nutrition information and education will be incorporated in the school curricula ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Oduro-Ofori</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>15</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>58, 59</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>15</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520927144″>15</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Oduro-Ofori, Eric</author><author>Yeboah-Gyapong, Adwoa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Contribution of the Ghana Schools Feeding Programme to Basic School Participation: A Study of Selected Schools in the Kwaebibirim District of Ghana</title></titles><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Yunusa</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>16</RecNum><record><rec-number>16</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520927158″>16</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yunusa, Isa</author><author>Gumel, Ahmed Muhammed</author><author>Adegbusi, Khalid</author><author>Adegbusi, Sherif</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>School feeding program in Nigeria: A vehicle for nourishment of pupils</title><secondary-title>Afr Symp</secondary-title></titles><pages>104-10</pages><volume>12</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>58, 59. Other measures, like deworming, that have proven to have a direct impact of the health status of children, will also be part of the school feeding program. Based upon the pilot phase which so far has included 200 schools covering approximately 60,000 pupils, expansion to 500 schools is foreseen by the end of 2006 with the intention to cover all public primary schools by the end of 2010 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Adamu-Issah</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>56</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520925877″>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Adamu-Issah, Madeez</author><author>Elden, L al</author><author>Forson, Micheal</author><author>Schrofer, Tamar</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Achieving universal primary education in Ghana by 2015: A reality or a dream</title><secondary-title>UNICEF, New York</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>UNICEF, New York</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>56.

2.6 Review of human Resource and Infrastructure for FCUBE implementationEducational statistics always constitute a problem because population census has to be reliable due to political reasons. Often the published educational statistics has many lapses and therefore are not good for the policy. Professional hands are required for data collection and analysis but are not readily available even at the ministries ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Asafo-Adjei</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>76</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>60</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>76</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521091848″>76</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Asafo-Adjei, R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Teaching basic mathematics for colleges of education diploma methodology</title><secondary-title>Accra: Bayboya Ltd</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Accra: Bayboya Ltd</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2001</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>60. No educational system can rise above the level of its teachers ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Okeke</Author><Year>1986</Year><RecNum>75</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>61</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>75</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521091729″>75</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Okeke, Ambrose N</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Administering education in Nigeria: Problems and prospects</title></titles><dates><year>1986</year></dates><publisher>Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria)</publisher><isbn>9781296291</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>61. This explains why some policies failed because teacher factors are not considered seriously and is a very critical one. Many educational programs and projects have failed mainly because they did not take into consideration the teacher factor.

In recognition of teacher factor, the implementation scheme has clearly stated that the teacher will always be an integral part of the process of FCUBE conceptualization, planning, and implementation. It is good to create awareness for the program, elicit the support and inputs of the basic school teachers and enrich their perception by training, retraining and recruiting them. Once in a while teachers need the workshop and seminars to retain the already serving teachers in the villages and not only in the headquarters. Teachers need a good working condition that keeps them happy, regular, and highly dedicated to their duty. According to Onah (1998) and also cited by Ugwuanyi (2015) such good working condition embraces adequate training and discipline, enough qualified staff and supply of all necessary equipment that make for effective teaching ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ugwuanyi</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>51</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>49, 62</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>51</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521028627″>51</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Thesis”>32</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ugwuanyi, Michael Edozie</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Impact Of Universal Basic Education (UBE) On Educational Development In Enugu State; A Case Study Of Nsukka Local Government Area</title></titles><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Onah</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>77</RecNum><record><rec-number>77</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521091957″>77</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Onah, VAN</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The teaching conditions of the teacher presuppose the learning condition and success of the student</title><secondary-title>The Rainbow</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Rainbow</full-title></periodical><dates><year>1998</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>49, 62. FCUBE requires the full involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, in guidance and counseling in school management, in social mobilization and in decision-making process. Teachers deserve their regular promotions and payment of all salaries and benefits as at when due and steps need to be taken to make school environment teacher-friendly and learner-friendly.

Akyeampong et al (2001) says that a list of infrastructures and facilities should involve classrooms, libraries, workshops, laboratories, and playfield and school farm. These need to be provided in the appropriate quantity and quality to meet the minimum standard for promoting any meaningful teaching and learning ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Akyeampong</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>78</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>63</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>78</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521092302″>78</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Report”>27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Akyeampong, K</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Initial Teacher Training in Ghana-Does it Count?–A Country Report</title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><publisher>MUSTER Discussion Paper</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>63. It is therefore essential that the census of the existing ones should be taken before providing more of infrastructure. Provision of textbooks and instructional materials are required in accordance to demand of the curriculum. FCUBE has posed a challenge to Ghana to publish the required textbooks for effective teaching and learning. He says that it provides an opportunity to take full advantage of the possibilities offered by new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for improving quality of education.

2.7 Defining variables and measurement2.7.1 EnrollmentEnrollment is adversely affected when children do not enroll or pupils leave school after enrollment. The causes of both can be categorized into supply factors, demand factors and other factors e.g. socio-cultural. Supply factors include unavailability of school, difficulty of access to school, unavailability of teachers as well as the cost involved in schooling.

Demand factors include undesirability of household for education (especially of females), household inability to meet costs of schooling, children/pupils seeking work to help household and the child/pupil having no desire for education. Demand factors exert a great influence on enrollment. In a study of Yemen, for example, Mbelle (2002) found that demand factors explained 62.7 per cent of non-enrollment and 75.3 per cent of leaving school ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mbelle</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>67</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>64</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>67</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″>67</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mbelle, Amon VY</author><author>Katabaro, Joviter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania</title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>64.

Due to the problems associated with the enrollment drive in basic education, FCUBE came to take care of them since its implementation in 1996 when it became a legal document in Ghana.

A decision to invest in education is guided by cost-benefit considerations. At the macro level the question whether education contributes to economic growth and how this contribution compares with the contribution of physical capital becomes of paramount importance. At the household level private costs and benefits form the basis of decision-making ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mbelle</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>67</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>64, 65</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>67</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″>67</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mbelle, Amon VY</author><author>Katabaro, Joviter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania</title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Psacharopoulos</Author><Year>1985</Year><RecNum>74</RecNum><record><rec-number>74</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521091383″>74</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Psacharopoulos, GEORGE</author><author>Woodhall, MAUREEN</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment Choices (Washington, DC: World Bank)</title></titles><dates><year>1985</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>64, 65.

Given the high external benefits of primary education (lower transaction costs between individuals, improved health status, improved good governance, adoption and diffusion of new techniques, etc.), there are strong arguments for government intervention due to failures in the market for education ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Appleton</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>73</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>64, 66</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>73</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521091244″>73</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Appleton, Simon</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>User fees, expenditure restructuring and voucher systems in education</title></titles><number>134</number><dates><year>1997</year></dates><publisher>UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Mbelle</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>67</RecNum><record><rec-number>67</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″>67</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mbelle, Amon VY</author><author>Katabaro, Joviter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania</title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>64, 66. These include possibility of under-provision since social returns exceed private returns; unequal access given weak systems for redistributing income through tax and benefit systems especially in capital market and insurance market failures and uneven information. Again, the state owns much of the basic school infrastructure especially in developing countries (example as great as 95 per cent in Ghana). The most controlling instrument that affects enrollment is the budget (government expenditure).

Evidence from many developing countries, where levels of incomes are low, suggests that where government cuts in basic education spending were affected, enrollment suffers. The International Labor Conference 79th Session (1992) point out that basic education “has the politically weakest constituencies and the weakest bureaucracies in most countries.” It requires a long-standing and serious commitment of governments to resist such cuts ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Office</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>72</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>67</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>72</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521090547″>72</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>International Labour Office</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Adjustment and Human Resources Development: Sixth Item on the Agenda</title></titles><number>no. 6</number><dates><year>1992</year></dates><publisher>International Labour Office</publisher><isbn>9789221079729</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FO4Zr13RU6AC</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>67.

Incomes of households have also been singled out as an important factor in determining enrollment. Several Latin America countries e.g. Brazil, Mexico innovated a cash transfer (minimum income) approach to simultaneously achieve improvement in the educational attainment of children in poor families and poverty reduction. The initiative, known as Minimum Income for School Attendance (MISA) compensated in cash grant the family for the direct and opportunity cost of sending their children to school on condition that the school-age children attended school for a specified number of days per month ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>BASHUNA</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>71</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>68</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>71</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521089833″>71</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bashuna, Abudho Shanu</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>University of Nairobi</title></titles><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>68. The overall result brought about increase in enrollment.

2.7.2 PerformancePermitting an equal opportunity to all school-age children to attend school is only the first step. “Once pupils find seats in a classroom, they need quality instruction; otherwise there will be little motivation to persist in school” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chatterjee</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>70</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>69, 70</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>70</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521089620″>70</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chatterjee, Bhaskar</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Education for All: The Indian Saga</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Lotus Press</publisher><isbn>8183820778</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Rao</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>69</RecNum><record><rec-number>69</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521089483″>69</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rao, D Bhaskara</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessing Learning Achievement</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><publisher>Discovery Publishing House</publisher><isbn>8171416012</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>69, 70. Unsatisfactory quality is one of the factors leading to parents shifting their children from one school to the other. The flight is particularly experienced among children of middle class incomes who begun to be affected by migration back to public schools or from schools outside the country to home country. Parents also resort to private tuition to compensate for low quality.

The quality of instructions determines student achievement. There are four commonly applied measures of student achievement: school-based assessment, public examinations, national assessment and international assessments.

School-based assessments measure performance against curricular goals. They are done on a continuous basis and offer immediate feedback. In this respect, they provide a more actual picture than standardized national tests. Public examinations are intended for selecting pupils/students to next level of education, certifying graduates for the job market and fostering accountability for school and school performance. Selection however, is the most important ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Fiske</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>68</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>71</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>68</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521089057″>68</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fiske, E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Education for all: Status and trends 2000</title><secondary-title>Retrieved from UNESCO website: http://unesdoc. unesco. org/images/0011/001198/119823e. pdf</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Retrieved from UNESCO website: http://unesdoc. unesco. org/images/0011/001198/119823e. pdf</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2000</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>71.

In developing countries, public examinations are more important given the limited alternative opportunities for advancement. National assessments are intended to inform policy and take the form of tests to a sample of pupils, questionnaires etc. They are not very common in Africa though they are commonly practiced in developed economies. International assessments compare results of examining samples of students from many different countries.

Chinapah et al (2000) assessed the relative importance of the factors that influence performance in eleven African countries using path analysis with LISREL software program ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mbelle</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>67</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>64</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>67</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″>67</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mbelle, Amon VY</author><author>Katabaro, Joviter</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania</title></titles><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>64. The statistical technique, path analysis, allows for comparison of direct, indirect and total effects of variables while the LISREL model has two components: one, which specifies the relationships (measurement model) and the second part the structural model.

The following are the analyzed factors which are also included in the FCUBE policy document.

1. Learner background (gender, age, home language, pre-school attendance, repetition).

2. Home background (meals, single or both parents in the home etc.).

3. Home learning support (help with homework, parents, education etc.).

4. Teacher background (age, gender, experience, qualification etc.).

5. Teaching conditions (classroom furniture, learning materials, etc.).

6. Teachers’ work environment and activities (availability etc.).

7. School head background (gender, qualification, experiences etc.).

8. School characteristics (facilities, size, safety, location, ownership etc.).

Results of the global model revealed the following order of ranking (degree of importance) from the most important factors (strength of total path coefficient and its frequency):
1. Socio-economic status.

2. Access to school.

3. Pupils Attitude to school and to the teacher.

4. Teacher characteristics.

5. Home learning environment.

6. School learning environment.

7. Classroom characteristics.

8. School safety and security.

9. Assessment practices.

10. Learner characteristics.

11. Availability of teaching materials.

The main conclusion drawn by the authors was that, determinants of performance differ across localities or countries. This has implications on interventions: whether they should be common or specific ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Chinapah;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;66;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;64, 72;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;66;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088800″;66;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Chinapah, Vinayagum;/author;;author;H;apos;ddigui, EL Mostafa;/author;;author;Kanjee, Anil;/author;;author;Falayajo, Wole;/author;;author;Fomba, Cheik Omar;/author;;author;Hamissou, Oumarou;/author;;author;Rafalimanana, Albert;/author;;author;Byomugisha, Albert;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;With Africa for Africa. Towards Quality Education for All. 1999 MLA Project;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;publisher;ERIC;/publisher;;isbn;0796919615;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Mbelle;/Author;;Year;2003;/Year;;RecNum;67;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;67;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″;67;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Mbelle, Amon VY;/author;;author;Katabaro, Joviter;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2003;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;64, 72.

ICFE (2000) categorizes the factors into contextual and school-related. Contextual factors relate to the context in which schools and individual students function (e.g. school location-rural or urban, ownership of school-public or private, family size, socio-economic status and educational attainment of parents) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Fiske;/Author;;Year;2000;/Year;;RecNum;68;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;64, 71;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;68;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521089057″;68;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Fiske, E;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Education for all: Status and trends 2000;/title;;secondary-title;Retrieved from UNESCO website: http://unesdoc. unesco. org/images/0011/001198/119823e. pdf;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Retrieved from UNESCO website: http://unesdoc. unesco. org/images/0011/001198/119823e. pdf;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2000;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Mbelle;/Author;;Year;2003;/Year;;RecNum;67;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;67;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″;67;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Mbelle, Amon VY;/author;;author;Katabaro, Joviter;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2003;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;64, 71.

School-related factors include qualifications of teachers, distance from school to where pupils live, availability of textbooks and other educational materials, length of school year and day, homework policies, etc. It is further pointed out that educational administrators and policy-makers have little control over contextual factors but have considerable influence over school-related factors ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Mbelle;/Author;;Year;2003;/Year;;RecNum;67;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;64;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;67;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521088876″;67;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Mbelle, Amon VY;/author;;author;Katabaro, Joviter;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;School enrolment, performance and access to education in Tanzania;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2003;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;64.

2.7.3 Staffing and InfrastructureEducational data always constitute a problem because population census has to be reliable due to political reasons. Often, the published educational data has many lapses and therefore are not good for the program. Professional hands are required for data collection and analysis but are not readily available even at the ministries (Akyeampong et al, 2011). No educational system can rise above the level of its teachers (Okeke, 2009). This explains why some programs failed because teacher factors are not considered seriously and is a very critical one. Many educational programs and projects have failed mainly because they did not take due account of the teacher factor.

In recognition of teacher factor, the implementation scheme has clearly stated that teachers will always be an integral part of the process of FUBE conceptualization, planning, and implementation (Mataga and Abdulahi 2002). It is good to create awareness for the program, elicit the support and inputs of the basic school teachers and enrich their perception by training, retraining and recruiting them. Once in a while teachers need the workshop and seminars to retain the already serving teachers in the villages and not only in the headquarters. Teachers need a good working condition that keeps them happy, regular, and highly dedicated to their duty. Most teachers in Ghana underperform because of their conditions of service. According to Onah (1998) such good working condition embraces adequate training and discipline, enough qualified staff and supply of all necessary equipment that make for effective teaching (Obioma 2007) opined that FUBE requires the full involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, in guidance and counseling in school management, in social mobilization and in decision-making process. Teachers deserve their regular promotions and payment of all salaries and fringe benefits as at when due and steps need to be taken to make school environment teacher-friendly and learner-friendly.

Oguche and Rabah (2001) say that a list of infrastructures and facilities should involve classrooms, libraries, workshops, laboratories, and playfield and school farm. These need to be provided in the appropriate quantity and quality to meet the minimum standard for promotion any meaningful teaching and learning. It is therefore essential that the census of the existing ones should be taken before providing more of infrastructure.

Provision of textbooks and instructional materials are required in accordance to demand of the curriculum. Ezema (2000) opined that FUBE has posed a challenge to Ghana in publishing required textbooks for effective teaching and learning. It provides an opportunity to take full advantage of the possibilities offered by new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for improving quality of education.

2.8 Theoretical perspective of the researchThe theoretical frameworks of analysis that will be utilized in this study are systems theory, popular demands model and social demand approach.

2.8.1 Systems theorySystems theory is a scientific/philosophical approach and set of concepts, rather than a theory, for the trans-disciplinary study of complex phenomena. It was first proposed by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in the 1940’s.

Systems theory was developed from the work of David Eason. Igwe (2007: 437), and Sharma and Sadana (2006:211) maintain that systems theory has been in use since 1950s ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Igwe</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>17</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>73, 74</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>17</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520931181″>17</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Igwe, Obasi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Politics and globe dictionary</title><secondary-title>Aba: Eagle Publishers</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Aba: Eagle Publishers</full-title></periodical><volume>60</volume><dates><year>2005</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Sharma</Author><Year>1992</Year><RecNum>18</RecNum><record><rec-number>18</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520931373″>18</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sharma, Mahadeo Prasad</author><author>Sadana, BL</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Public administration in theory and practice</title></titles><dates><year>1992</year></dates><publisher>Kitab Mahal</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>73, 74.

According to Koontze et al (1982:70) quoted in Ezeani (2006:92) systems theorists hold that “a system is essentially an assemblage of things interconnected or interdependent, so as to form a complex unit” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ezeani</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>19</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>75</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>19</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520931585″>19</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ezeani, Emmanuel Onyebuchi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Basic Elements for effective Human Resources Management in the Local government system in Nigeria</title><secondary-title>Human Resources Management in the Local Government System in Nigeria, Nsukka: AP express Publishing Company</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Human Resources Management in the Local Government System in Nigeria, Nsukka: AP express Publishing Company</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2002</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>75. Igwe (2007:436) observes: For any object to be considered a system it must possess a level of integrity with a knowable structure or logically-arranged parts; such parts or elements must interrelate in a certain law- governed manner to fulfill a purpose or produce an ordered outcome. A result which is far more than the mere sum total of the independent elements; and all this, in the context of an environment of which it is a subordinate component ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Igwe</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>17</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>73</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>17</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520931181″>17</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Igwe, Obasi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Politics and globe dictionary</title><secondary-title>Aba: Eagle Publishers</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Aba: Eagle Publishers</full-title></periodical><volume>60</volume><dates><year>2005</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>73.

The diagram below shows the illustration of the systems theory in the educational system in Ghana.

Fig.1. An illustration of the System Theory
The success of the FCUBE policy depends on these stakeholders. The underperformance of one body affects the other.

2.8.2 Welfare theoryWelfare theory grew from social services. It is the practice of providing needed services to less privileged individuals in a society. Welfare theory has virtually become synonymous to “Welfare State”. It was first used to describe Labor Britain after 1945. Briggs (1952) is credited to have provided an early and famous definition of the welfare state, which is a “state in which power is deliberately used in an effort to modify the play of market forces in at least three directions: guaranteeing a minimum income, narrowing the extent of insecurity; and by offering all citizens a range of social services” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Moroney</Author><Year>1991</Year><RecNum>20</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>76-78</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>20</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520932420″>20</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Moroney, Robert M</author><author>Krysik, Judy</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Social policy and social work: Critical essays on the welfare state</title></titles><dates><year>1991</year></dates><publisher>Transaction Publishers</publisher><isbn>0202369072</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Halperin</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>21</RecNum><record><rec-number>21</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520932494″>21</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Halperin, Sandra</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>War and social change in modern Europe: the great transformation revisited</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><isbn>0521540151</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Briggs</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>24</RecNum><record><rec-number>24</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520934287″>24</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Briggs, Asa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The welfare state in historical perspective</title><secondary-title>The welfare state reader</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The welfare state reader</full-title></periodical><volume>2</volume><dates><year>2000</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>76-78. Briggs indicated that the first two conditions are concerned with minimum standards, which can be met by a ‘social service state’, but the third borders on the optimum. Goodin et al. (1961) list the reasons for welfare provision: economic efficiency, social equality, social integration and stability, autonomy, and to reduce poverty ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>MacGregor</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>78, 79</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520933911″>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Report”>27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>MacGregor, Susanne</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Welfare: Theoretical and Analytical Paradigms</title></titles><dates><year>2014</year></dates><publisher>UNRISD Working Paper</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Briggs</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>24</RecNum><record><rec-number>24</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520934287″>24</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Briggs, Asa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The welfare state in historical perspective</title><secondary-title>The welfare state reader</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The welfare state reader</full-title></periodical><volume>2</volume><dates><year>2000</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>78, 79.

Welfare provision works for mostly the physical and material interests of beneficiaries. Interests are linked both with people’s needs, which are socially defined, and with what people want. If people can be mistaken about where their interests lie, their welfare will not be served by considering their wants alone according to P. Spicker (1988) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Spicker;/Author;;Year;1988;/Year;;RecNum;22;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;80;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;22;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520933258″;22;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Spicker, Paul;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Principles of Social Welfare;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1988;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;80.

Social welfare is not simply the sum of individual welfares, and one concept cannot be derived from the other. Some interests may be held in common. Equally, however, there may be conflicts between interests, and some may bear costs for the benefit of others according to Spicker (1988) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Spicker;/Author;;Year;1988;/Year;;RecNum;22;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;80;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;22;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520933258″;22;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Spicker, Paul;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Principles of Social Welfare;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1988;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;80.

In its broadest sense, the idea of ‘welfare’ refers to ‘well-being’, or what is ‘good’ for people. Understood more narrowly, it can be taken to refer to the provision of social services; principally health care, housing, social security, education and social work. The connection between the two uses rests in the role of social services as ‘the provision of welfare’.
2.8.3 Popular demand model
This study adopted the popular demand for education model to the provision of educational facilities as proposed by Vaizey (1972) as another theoretical framework of analysis ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81.

According to the popular demand for education model, education should be provided for all who are qualified to acquire it and are willing to do so. Viazey went ahead to state that of all the methods so far used for educational planning, the social demand is much best. Education is a social service and, therefore, it is the sole responsibility of a responsible government to anticipate demand for placement in the school and make adequate provision to meet such demands as the need arises. Implied here is the fact that this approach takes into consideration the available structures, facilities, human and material resources and relates them to situations where various kinds of private demands for education are consented to and what will be required under the prevalent school provisions ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81, 82;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Vaizey;/Author;;Year;1972;/Year;;RecNum;26;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;26;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520990300″;26;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Vaizey, John;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The political economy of education;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1972;/year;;/dates;;publisher;London: Duckworth;/publisher;;isbn;0715606093;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81, 82.

2.8.4 Social Demand Approach
Social Demand Approach is a traditional method which takes educational development in terms of the current demand for education at the different levels and projections than on the basis of increase in the population, age distribution, and long-term national and social goals as well as on the basis of what is known about state and consumer preferences for education. The goals and preferences of the approach include universal literacy, universal compulsory basic education and cultural objectives. This approach emphasizes on education as a social infrastructure for development purposes and as an end in itself. The central argument of social demand approach is built on the assumption that popular demand for education would continue to exceed supply; the unit cost of education would remain constant and that the expanded education outlays would add to economic growth. Here it is the welfare of the people that matters and not economic rationalization ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81.

The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana provides that government shall try to eradicate illiteracy through free, compulsory and universal basic education. The provision and financing of education should be aimed at making the citizenry better off. Relying heavily on the consumption variable, this approach negates the economic consequence and/or requirement for the workforce. As Uwazuruike (1991), as cited by Goodluck 2012, aptly observed, social demand for education tends to take much of the national budget for education; it does not consider the absorptive capacity of the labor market for the graduates of the educational system. In this sense, the society is much more concerned with increase in literacy level rather than subsequent gainful employment of the products of the educational system ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81.

Hence the major pre-occupation of welfare thinkers is to seek government intervention in education in the form of subsidies. Subsidies are needed to acquire equipment, facilities, instructional materials, textbooks as well as the payment of workers. Scholars in welfare believe that though the economic benefits are hardly pursued deliberately, the benefits accrue to society whenever the product is put to use. To these scholars, education is acquired for its public values and for its own sake because of the right to knowledge as provided to the individual in the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana.

In the same vein, Noe (1986) propounded a formula for funding welfare education without necessarily sacrificing other demands on government by other sectors of the economy. This is based on the principles of equality, accuracy and flexibility, reducing political influence on funding, making equitable distribution of resources, creating room for increased accountability as well as adjusting to inadequate revenues.

A notable effect of consumption education is increase in school size. With unlimited access to education thanks to the right to knowledge and social justice clause, enrollment into the schools increased resulting to large school size. The problem of ineffective supervision, control, indiscipline and pressure on teachers equally surfaced as a result of this increment.

This scenario raises questions about the centralization of educational facilities especially in third world countries. Centralization is the exercise of authority in managing, directing and administering the educational system in the developing countries (Edem, 1987) ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Edem;/Author;;Year;1987;/Year;;RecNum;27;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;83;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;27;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520993386″;27;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”;10;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Edem, DA;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Introduction to Educational Administration in Nigeria (15-26);/title;;secondary-title;Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the Teachers Institute of Nigeria. Ibadan: Heinemann;/secondary-title;;/titles;;dates;;year;1987;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;83. Here there is little or no local or grass-root participation in planning and decision making in education because of excessive centralization which in turn impacts on educational provisions and delays decision-making at the center ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81.

Enaohwo (1985) opines that the main focus of social demand approach to education is that education should be available to those who need it and in the process; money should not be a cause of worry. To buttress this point, Enaohwo quoted the Dutch Economic Institute as asserting that if a sufficiently qualified citizen stands at the door of any type of school, he must be admitted, and it is the responsibility of the appropriate government authorities to anticipate his requests so that school capacity will be adequate to accommodate him ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Enaohwo;/Author;;Year;1985;/Year;;RecNum;28;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;84, 85;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;28;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520993556″;28;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Enaohwo, J Okpako;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Emerging issues in Nigerian education—The case of the level and scope of growth of Nigerian universities;/title;;secondary-title;Higher Education;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Higher Education;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;307-319;/pages;;volume;14;/volume;;number;3;/number;;dates;;year;1985;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0018-1560;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Sheehan;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;29;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;29;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520993900″;29;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Sheehan, John;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The economics of education;/title;;/titles;;volume;54;/volume;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;publisher;Routledge;/publisher;;isbn;0415677564;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;84, 85.

It should be noted that the social demand approach to the planning of education adopts some methodological steps. First is the collection of the most comprehensive estimates of the population by children according to age levels in each target region so as to ascertain the number of enrollment of children in the various level of the educational system.

The second step involves the determination of people’s educational demands, the cost of providing such education to that entire demand for it as well as the capacity of the economy to afford it. Enaohwo (1990) points out that it is also necessary to determine the number of educated manpower required by the national economy, job openings within the given national economy as well as the amount of anticipated foreign aid ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Enaohwo</Author><Year>1985</Year><RecNum>28</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>81, 84</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>28</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520993556″>28</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Enaohwo, J Okpako</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Emerging issues in Nigerian education—The case of the level and scope of growth of Nigerian universities</title><secondary-title>Higher Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Higher Education</full-title></periodical><pages>307-319</pages><volume>14</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1985</year></dates><isbn>0018-1560</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>GOODLUCK</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>25</RecNum><record><rec-number>25</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″>25</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Goodluck, Onwubiko</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>81, 84.

Issues related to the funding of education have continued to be a recurrent issue in Ghana. Sufficient funds are hardly provided for the payment of teachers. Thus, any effort that is not geared towards correcting this imbalance will not be to the overall good of education at this level. In other words, the focus of education at the primary level should be to create conducive environment and opportunity for willing and eligible citizens to realize their fundamental rights to education. However, a major weakness of the welfare orientation approach to education is that it does not give room for selection and this directly and indirectly leads to wastage ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>GOODLUCK</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>25</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>81</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>25</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″>25</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Goodluck, Onwubiko</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>81.

As a rejoinder to the above, there is the tendency for government under the approach of the welfare concerned people to exaggerate popular demand and under-estimate cost. This will give rise to availability of inadequate resources which will impact on effectiveness and quality.

2.9 Theoretical framework
Fig. 2. An illustration of the Theoretical framework
2.10 HypothesisHypothesis which undertake the study are:
1. The government’s willingness to support and provide staff and infrastructure in Basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District.

2. Existing relationship between FCUBE policy and students’ enrollment in Atwima Kwanwoma District
3. The existing relationship between FCUBE policy and students’ performance in the district.

4. The relationship between FCUBE policy and students’ punctuality in the district.

Chapter 3 Research MethodologyThis section discussed the research design and research procedure employed in the study. They are, design of the study, population of study, sample and sampling technique, distribution of instrument used for data collection, validity and reliability of the instrument and method of data analysis
3.1 Design of the studyThis study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research approach. It focuses on meaning and also measures quantifiable phenomena (Chambliss and Scutt 2010, 196-197).
The study is an investigation research. According to Nworgu (1991) investigation research is designed to find out the opinion of people in a given area towards an issue or event that is of interest to the generality of people in a given area. In this study, the method of assessing the implementation of free compulsory universal basic education was investigated. The analysis was based on extensive review of literature which is the qualitative approach in academic research articles, books and reports from World Bank, and national government policy and reports on the Ghana education service. Also the quantitative approach uses tables and charts in analyzing the impact of FCUBE policy on basic education in Ghana.

3.2 Collection of DataThe researcher used both primary and secondary data. Data on pupils Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) results, pupils’ attendance, teachers’ attendance and infrastructure record were collected from the educational authorities’. Response from teachers through interview was used in the analysis. Others will be taken from genre report and government official report.

3.4 Area of studyThe area of study was Atwima Kwanwoma District of the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Atwima Kwanwoma District consists of so many communities which include Heman, Darko, Ahenema Kokoben, Trede, Brofoyedu, Kotwi, Foase, Nkoranza, Bebu, Adumasa, Konkoli, Akyeremade, Twedie, Boko, Taaboum, Apemanim, Mpatasie, Tabe, among others. These are autonomous communities that make up Atwima Kwanwoma District.

The area is bounded in the north by Atwima Mponua District, in the south by Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly, in the west by Atwima Nwabiagya District and in the east by Bosomtwe District ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Bonsu;/Author;;Year;2010;/Year;;RecNum;31;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;86;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;31;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520998003″;31;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Thesis”;32;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Bonsu, Hannah Serwah;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Promoting Local Development in Atwima Nwabiagya through a Hybrid of Cultures;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2010;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;86. Atwima Kwanwoma District is one of the areas where FCUBE policy is being implemented. Therefore, the area adequately suits the purpose of this study.

3.5 Sample Population and Sampling techniques of the study3.5.1 Sample Population of the studyThe population of this study consists of the educational authorities, headmasters and teachers in the basic schools, J.S.S 1-3 students in the district. The total population in the district was around 90,634 according to the 2010 population census ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Service;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;30;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;87;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;30;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520997636″;30;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Report”;27;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ghana Statistical Service;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;2010 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS FINAL RESULTS;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Ghana;/pub-location;;publisher;Ghana Statistical Service;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;87.

3.5.2 Sampling techniques of the studySampling involves the selection of a number of study units from a defined study population Asafo-Adjei (2000). The researcher will make use of a sample size of one thousand respondents, which will provide a representation of the study population. The sample of this study constitute fifteen (15) government basic schools out of the basic schools that exist in Atwima Kwanwoma District the researcher will select this sample through a systematic random sampling technique. Random sampling according to Asafo-Adjei 2000 is the selection procedure where all the cases in the defined population have on equal chance or probability of being selected and the selection of each case area from the pool of cases. The list of government basic schools will be written down.

3.6 Method of data analysisThe researcher employed both quantitative and qualitative methods in analyzing his findings. The researcher made use of secondary data. The data was collected personally from the concerned authorities of education, school heads and teachers in the district. The researcher made use of the UESTC library to find more journals about the topic. This work will be published after a successful completion.

Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Findings4.1 Government’s support to Basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District.4.1.1 Impact of Provision of free uniform on enrollment in basic schools
Fig. 3 Effect of school uniform supply on students’ enrollment
The study further investigated the effect of school uniforms supply to students on their enrollment within the district. The results from the data showed that there was consistent increase of pupil’s enrollment over the study period across the schools whereas provision of uniforms to the school children assumed undulating trend. Figure 3 comparatively presents the relationship between the two variables. The study did not establish a clear effect of uniform supply on student’s enrollment even though the student’s population kept rising upwards amongst all the schools sampled for this study. Taking Bebu as an illustrative example, student’s enrollment was minimally improving across the successive years. The situation of the uniform supply to children had been consistently inconsistent across the study period with intermittent ebbs.

4.1.2 Relationship between provision of school uniform and pupils performance

Fig. 4. An illustration of the relationship between school uniform supply and pupils’ performance
Source: field data 2018
Some of the key indicators of poverty and deprivation/ alienation of resources are absence of; portable water, basic health needs food, shelter and clothing. Undoubtedly, most underprivileged families struggle to provide their wards with decent clothing for both schooling and public occasions. In light of this, the government, as part of implementation strategies of FCUBE supplies uniform to basic school children in the deprived communities across the country. This paper therefore analyzed data on the impact of provision of the uniforms on the performance of the beneficiary schools. The study observed a positive correlation between these two variables in most of the sampled schools. At Trede, there was a significant positive relationship between supply of uniforms to students and their academic performance. This implies that the students within a year group who benefited most from the provision of free uniforms outperformed their counterparts who did not benefit at a similar degree. Moreover, across the schools, those who benefited most from the uniform supplies recorded a greater margin of academic performance against those who benefited less. Figure 4 above gives detailed pictorial illustrations across schools and between student year groups.

4.1.3 Relationship between provision of adequate teaching equipment and pupils’ performanceTable 1
Provision of Teaching Equipment (%) 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16
A/Kokoben D/A J.H.S 75 89 93 100 97 73 86
Brofoyedru D/A J.H.S 60 72 88 76 98 97 94
Kotwi D/A J.H.S 55 81 75 77 69 83 91
Trede D/A J.H.S 81 99 100 92 89 80 96
Nkoranza D/A J.H.S 50 83 95 79 84 69 85
Bebu D/A J.H.S 65 70 81 88 91 82 79
Adequate teaching equipment cannot be left out in quality delivery of instruction which is one of the general objectives of FCUBE policy. Government through the FCUBE policy provides the necessary teaching equipment to schools to enhance teaching and learning since it has influence on students’ performance. From the table above, it indicates that increase in provision of teaching equipment improves students’ performance within the period of study. Trede D/A JHS and Ahenema Kokoben D/A JHS recorded 100% performance which constitutes the highest performance in the BECE results when they had the highest supply of teaching equipment of 81% and 75% in 2012 and 2013 respectively. Considering Nkoranza D/A J.H.S which received 50% teaching equipment, the performance rate of the pupils was affected in their BECE exams. Popular demand for education model states clearly that, when pupils are given a serene environment with appropriate teaching and learning materials, they are able to grasp whatever concept they learn. Therefore, it can be concluded from the above table that, increase in teaching equipment provision increases students’ performance.

4.2 The District Education Directorate and the implementation of FCUBE policy4.2.1 Effects of District supervision of teachers on pupils performanceMotivation and supervision are bedfellows in leveraging the skills of employees with the objectives of an organization both in public and private institutions. Research has shown that supervision, in particular, has become a necessary instrument to whip public sector workers in line with the aims and objectives of the various public departments. This study solicited views from the district supervisory officials and head teachers of the selected schools on how supervision by the district officials has impacted the student’s progression over the years. The analysis their response suggests a positive interaction between the two variables. About 70% of the respondents indicated a strong effect of supervision on students’ academic progression. There were 6% of the interviewers who indicated a medium to low correlation between supervision and children’s performance at school whereas the remaining 24% were indifferent to questions asked on this subject. Overall, none of the neither officials nor head teachers raised a discordance voice on the impact of supervision of teachers by district officials on school children’s performance.

The revelation of this study indicates that consistent and well-coordinated district supervision on teachers can go a long way to improve the quality of teaching in the classrooms. Hence, the objective of FCUBE policy can be realized through good motivation packages blended with structured and intermittent district supervision on teachers work.

4.2.2 Effects of staff strength and requisite skills on pupils’ performance
Fig. 5 An illustration of Staff strength on pupils’ performance
Source: Field data 2018
To establish the correlation between the numerical strength of teachers and students output in the district, the data showed a positive relationship between the two variables throughout the district. Kokoben and Trede enjoyed about 96 percent of their respective staff needs and this has engendered their superior performance within the district over the years. Conversely, Kotwi and Bebu can only boast of between 60 to 80 percent of their staff needs. The corresponding performance of the two schools over the years has been characterized by ups and downs see Figure 5. There is a high significant effect of student to teacher ratio on the performance of pupils. Therefore, it’s very obvious that the higher the numerical strength of staff, the better the performance of students.

4.2.3 Effects of staff attendance on pupils’ performanceTable 2
Teachers attendance in %
School / Year 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16
A/Kokoben D/A J.H.S 79 89 99 95 75 78
Brofoyedru D/A J.H.S 87 92 86 98 95 90
Kotwi D/A J.H.S 90 81 84 75 90 96
Trede D/A J.H.S 99 97 90 87 81 95
Nkoranza D/A J.H.S 81 89 78 79 65 79
Bebu D/A J.H.S 92 85 90 94 75 83
Source: field data 2018
One of the key principles of education which management of educational institutions across the globe place much premium on is the attendance of curriculum instructors. To unearth the underpinning factors that contribute to total development of the students of Atwima Kwanwoma district, this study analyzed data on the attendance of teachers in the district. The output of the analysis shows a meandering trend across the years. This situation is similar to all the schools in the district. However, Trede and Brofoyedru seem to have experienced a bit improvement in the year 2014. Kokoben recorded her poorest attendance rate in the year 2015 while brofoyedru’s peak tumbled to the lowest in the year 2013. Kotwi and Trede had to face their share of low rate of teachers’ attendance in the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. Meanwhile, Nkoranza recorded the poorest teacher attendance in the district with 65% in 2015.

4.2.4 Impact of District In-service training for teachers on pupils’ performanceThe research assessed how often in-service training programs are organized for teachers within the district and how efficient and effective these programs have been. It came to light that these programs rarely happen in the district. Some of the teachers interviewed could not remember the last time they participated any program of such kind. Others indicated that a non-governmental education organization held a training workshop on ICT for them but could not recall the exact time. It was therefore not feasible to gather accurate data to measure the success or otherwise of in-service training for teachers within the study area. However, some teachers admitted that they have become rusty and rather monolithic in their teaching approaches. They expressed a desire to welcome training programs that seeks to refresh their ideas and equip them with new skills and methodologies which will be more efficient and effective in teaching and learning environment.
When their views on the role of in-service training were sought, most of them opined that in-service training could be of value in building their capacity to meet modern classroom challenges. Again, they believe that such programs will have a long run effect on pupil’s performance. Hereafter, to achieve the objectives of FCUBE, programs and workshops that build on teacher’s capacity should not be left out.

4.3 Analysis of the influence of FCUBE policy on parents and pupils attitude towards Education4.3.1 Analysis of infrastructure and pupils’ performance-3265710Fig. 6. Illustration of infrastructural provision on pupils’ performance
Source: field data 2018
Data was analyzed on the effect of infrastructural provision on the performance of the school children. Contrary to the widely held belief that infrastructure has a bearing on the performance of pupils, the study could not establish a clear relationship between the two variables. In some instances, whereas provision of learning infrastructure improves, the correspondent performance of children assumes a wavy movement. A clear case in point is Ahenema Kokoben D/A JHS. It is evident from figure 6 that infrastructural provision was not consistent, with an up and down movement across the study period. Conversely, performance of students kept surging until the year 2013 and started tumbling again through the successive years. The situation of the remaining schools is not quite different from the Kokoben’s case. Even though the data revealed that Kotwi has benefited just once within the study period, the correspondent performance of the children keeps undulating. This suggests that, the mediating factor of improved performance of school children is not exclusive to good infrastructure but rather interplay of many other relating factors.

4.3.2 Evaluation of the overall knowledge of parents on FCUBE and its objectives
Fig. 7. Illustration of parents view on the FCUBE
The study investigated parent’s opinion on the achievements of FCUBE using the objectives of the policy as a proxy/yardstick. Using a likert scale with a range (strongly agree – strongly disagree), the results showed that sixty-four percent (64%) of the parents within the district are in agreement that FCUBE policy has achieved its stated objectives. Similarly, thirty percent (30%) of the parents entirely/strongly agree with the idea that FCUBE has realized its stated objectives. On the contrary, just a handful of the parents expressed a dissenting view that FCUBE has achieved its codified policy objectives. This proportion of the parents represents two percent (2%) of the respondents. Observably, none of the respondents expressed a strong disagreement to the view that the policy has achieved its goals. Four percent (4%) of the parents declined taking any definitive stance on the question. A pictorial illustration of these findings can be seen in figure 7.

4.4 Analysis of FCUBE Motivation on teaching staff towards improvement of basic school Education in Ghana. 4.4.1 Teachers’ understanding of FCUBE objectives to improve pupils’ performance
Fig. 8. Illustration of teachers view on FCUBE
Teacher’s viewpoint on the achievement of the policy objectives was solicited. A likert scale with a range (strongly agree – strongly disagree) was employed for this data gathering activity. The study indicated that majority of the teachers in the district, representing 56% of the respondents strongly agreed with the assertion that FCUBE policy has realized its touted objectives. In the same vein, 18% of the respondents agreed to a lesser extent with the idea that the policy has realized its stated objectives. On the other hand, 14% of the teachers who responded to the questionnaire disagreed with the above assertion about FCUBE and its touted policy goals. Whereas 4% strongly disagreed with the popularly held achievements of the FCUBE policy objectives, 8% of the teachers opted to remain neutral about the subject. The overall picture suggests that most teachers in the district believe that FCUBE and its coaxial policies have had a substantial achievement on the educational system in the district with a few dissenting voices.

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4.4.2 Adequacy of human resource needs in the classroom towards pupils’ performance
Fig. 10 Relationship between number of Teachers and Pupils performance
Quality educational system revolves around available human resource with the requisite capacity and well-structured motivation. Proper learning can hardly be achieved or will rather be illusive to less experienced ones (learners) without the availability of well- motivated facilitators (teachers/educational staff). Therefore, to ascertain to what extent FCUBE policy has lived up to its billing, it’s rather expedient to assess the impact of adequacy of human resource in the various schools on students’ performance. The findings of this study showed that a mere increment in terms of staff strength do not necessarily engender improved performance of students. From figure 10, it is clear that almost all the sampled schools experienced an increment in their teaching staff across the study period. Even though students’ performances across the schools assumed increasing with increasing rate, yet in nominal values, there were observable setbacks in students’ performances across all the sampled schools. Thus, a cumulative analysis of the net percentage performance increment shows a reverse trend. This could be due to the quality and skills of the staff employed which suggests that insofar as it is good to employ more teachers to execute the FCUBE agenda, it is also more crucial to consider their skills and capacity to contribute to the entire achievement of the policy goals. Hence, training of teachers should be given a further look.

4.4.3 Staff perception of availability of teaching aids to achieve FCUBE objectivesPerceptions can affect the motivation of workers towards their responsibilities. Whereas positive perception encourages innovation and stimulates employee interest to deliver their best, Negative perception can breed discontent, disaffection and job dissatisfaction. Undoubtedly, teacher’s perception about availability of teaching materials can either motivate them for quality and diligent work or could be a source of laziness and job dissatisfaction. The sustenance of FCUBE policy partly hinges on the perception of teachers about their working conditions. This will further inform their attitudes towards work at various classrooms. The study purposively sampled and interviewed some teachers from the schools selected for this investigation. A whooping majority of the teachers bemoaned the stark insufficient of instructional aids. About 90% percent of the entire sample interviewed on the subject matter. The remaining 10% of the teachers interviewed declined comment on the matter. None of the teachers interviewed gave a dissenting view on the perception of available instructional aids and their probable effects on teacher’s quality of service delivery. Hence, FCUBE is likely to fail unless adequate instructional materials are provided.

Chapter 5 Discussion, Conclusion, Limitation, Suggestions, Recommendations and SummaryThis chapter dwells on the discussion of the findings, implications of the findings, recommendations, limitations of the study and suggestions for further study.

5.1 DiscussionInfrastructures available for the implementation of FCUBE policy in Atwima Kwanwoma District of Ghana
The researcher found out from the analysis that the extent of availability of infrastructure for the implementation of the FCUBE policy in Atwima Kwanwoma District is very low. The percentages of infrastructure provision in each of the schools of the study area showed that not all the infrastructure needed for the policy to achieve its objectives are available. In other words, the availability of facilities like classroom blocks, library blocks, school assembly hall, office blocks, textbooks, tables, chairs, chalkboards, recreational facilities, charts, maps, computers, pencils, diaries, desks etc. will go a long way in ensuring the success of the policy. This is so because these facilities are capable of giving teachers and pupils comfort by making the school environment learner-friendly. This finding is in tandem with the position of Ibiam (2001) that the provision of facilities for the implementation of the FCUBE policy is paramount to the success of the program ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81, 88;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Ibiam;/Author;;Year;2001;/Year;;RecNum;32;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;32;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521012048″;32;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ibiam, J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Government readiness for the implementation of UBE proggramme in Ebonyi State;/title;;secondary-title;The Nigerian UBE Journal, Faculty of Education UNN, 1, 2, 23;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;The Nigerian UBE Journal, Faculty of Education UNN, 1, 2, 23;/full-title;;/periodical;;volume;25;/volume;;dates;;year;2001;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81, 88. The rationale behind this finding is that the scheme requires infrastructure to be available in order to succeed. The absence of such infrastructures can only result to the failure of the policy.

Extent to which Available Infrastructures are Adequate for the success of the FCUBE Policy in Atwima Kwanwoma District of Ghana
The findings of the study show that the infrastructures available for the success of the FCUBE policy are less adequate. It is good for infrastructures to be available, yet it is also important for the available infrastructures to be adequate. That the infrastructures available are not adequate is evident from figure 6. This shows that the available facilities are less adequate. By implication, the available materials may either not be sufficient or entirely not available. To ensure the progress of the policy, therefore, it is necessary for the government to provide more infrastructures to ensure the effective running of the FCUBE policy.

This finding corresponds with the suggestion made by Obunadike (2009) as cited by Goodluck (2012). According to him, it is not enough to initiate a policy but rather, efforts must of necessity be made in ensuring that all the facilities and technical-know-how needs of the program are guaranteed. This is to avoid having to abandon a policy midway due to inadequate facilities ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81. Therefore, to ensure the success of the FCUBE policy in Atwima Kwanwoma District, infrastructures for the policy must be made adequate.

Quality of Teachers for the success of FCUBE in the Atwima Kwanwoma District of Ghana
The study found out that the quality of teachers required for the success of the FCUBE in Atwima Kwanwoma District is adequate. The necessity of quality teachers to achieve the objectives of FCUBE policy cannot be over-emphasized. This is so because it takes teachers that have sound education to impact positively on the pupils. Absence of quality teachers has adverse implications too. Some of such adverse implications, according to Obinaju (2001) include care-free attitude to work, inability to impart knowledge on the pupils, inability to effectively manage teaching and learning materials among several others ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;GOODLUCK;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;25;/RecNum;;DisplayText;;style face=”superscript”;81, 89;/style;;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;25;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1520989898″;25;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Goodluck, Onwubiko;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in the South-East and South-South Geeopolitical Zones of Nigeria;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2012;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Obinaju;/Author;;Year;2001;/Year;;RecNum;33;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;33;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dass0wvz3pvzspef2a8xva03wz2fzarzzpz0″ timestamp=”1521012974″;33;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Obinaju, QM;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Supervision and Evaluation: Strategies for the Success of the UBE Programme;/title;;secondary-title;Journal of Research in Education;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal of Research in Education;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;119-129;/pages;;volume;2;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2001;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;81, 89. That the quality of teachers available for the policy is of high advantage in the quest to have a successful FCUBE policy in Atwima Kwanwoma District in particular and the nation as a whole.

Management challenges confronting the implementation of FCUBE in the Atwima Kwanwoma District of Ghana
The findings of the study indicate that there are several management challenges confronting the success of FCUBE in Atwima Kwanwoma District. Some of these challenges include inadequate provision of infrastructure and uniform, enrollment of large number of pupils for the FCUBE policy, poor funding, and inadequate planning among others. The implication of this is that, the managers of the policy will have to find a way round these constraining factors for the policy to be a success. Therefore, managers of the FCUBE policy should be adequately provided with sufficient funds and facilities among others in order to remain effective in their administration of the policy.

5.2 ConclusionThis study examined the impact of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy in the Atwima Kwanwoma district of Ghana. Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:
1). the extent of infrastructures available for the success of the policy is low. An improvement in the available infrastructures will hasten the success of the policy.

2). the infrastructures available for 100% success of the policy are not adequate.

3). the provision of school uniform and teaching and learning materials to the basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District by the government were among the motivating factors that enhanced pupils interest in schooling and their overall performance.

4). educational authorities should provide basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District with the quality teachers to improve pupils’ performance.

5). it was also found out that several management challenges are encountered in the implementation of the FCUBE policy.

5.3 ImplicationsThe finding of the study reveals that the extent of availability of infrastructures for the FCUBE policy to achieve its objectives in Atwima Kwanwoma District is very low. This indicates that the infrastructures available for the FCUBE policy to succeed as expected are not adequate and therefore more infrastructures should be made available for 100% success of the policy.

The implication of this finding is that the government should endeavor to make available the needed facilities for the policy to realize its aims adequate. Inadequate facilities will only serve as hindrance to the success of the policy. Again, it was found that provision of school uniform to pupils had a great impact on the enrollment drive. It was realized that most parents and guidance cannot provide their wards uniform due to financial difficulties. It is therefore important for the government to provide uniform to all the school children as promised in the policy document to increase enrollment at basic school level. This will help the policy to realize one of its goals, that is, to eradicate illiteracy.

Also, the study revealed that the quality of teachers required for the success of FCUBE in Atwima Kwanwoma District is adequate. This is encouraging in that it will afford pupils the opportunity to learn from high quality teachers. The implication of this finding is that the recruitment methods used in the district is very high and commendable. Finally, it was discovered through the findings of the study that there are several management challenges confronting the implementation of the policy in the district. The implication of this finding is that efforts should be made to address these management issues to ensure smooth running of the FCUBE.

5.4 LimitationsThe researcher encountered many limitations in the course of this study. Some of these limitations include:
1. The school authorities were not willing to provide needed information. Most of them claimed to be very engrossed with their work.

2. Doubts over the level of honesty exhibited by the educational authorities in giving out the required information.

5.5 SuggestionsIn relation to the findings of this study, the following suggestions are made for further research:
1. The present study involved only few schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District, further studies could be conducted to include more schools and even more districts.

2. Problems related to the success of the FCUBE policy in the Atwima Kwanwoma District.

3. An assessment of the progress met in achieving education for all in Ghana.

4. The study could be replicated in other districts.

5.6 RecommendationsBased on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:
1. Government should do more to improve the quality of infrastructure and materials available for the achievement of the FCUBE policy goals.

2. More suitably qualified teachers should be employed to maintain high standard of education in the basic schools.

3. Efforts should be made to address the issue of poor funding of the policy.

4. Arrangements should be made to adequately cater for the large number of pupils that enrolled to avoid having over-crowded classrooms.

5. Efforts should be made to pay teachers’ salary as at when due so as to avoid disenchantment among the teachers.

6. Efforts should be made to stabilize government policies and actions regarding the FCUBE policy.

5.7 SummaryThe study sought to assess the impact of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy in the Atwima Kwanwoma District of Ghana.

According to Article 26 of the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to education which shall be free and compulsory at the primary levels.

That education is a universal human right lays emphasis on the fact that it is essential for the development both of the person and the society. Underscoring this fact, the 1996 National Education Policy (NEP) described it as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. In recognition of the centrality of education to national development, therefore, several policies, schemes and programs have been initiated by the Ghanaian government in the full expectation that they will facilitate national development.

However, it has been noted that the implementation of the policy has been witnessing some inconsistent and unsatisfying trends in its execution in Atwima Kwanwoma district of Ghana. These include inadequate infrastructures, inadequate number of qualified teachers, and insufficient supply of school uniform, teaching and learning materials, among others. This development in the implementation and success of the policy in the district worries the researcher. To this end, the researcher seeks to assess whether there has been any impact of FCUBE policy on basic education in the district. The problem of this study, therefore, is to ascertain the impact of FCUBE policy on basic education in Atwima Kwanwoma district of Ghana. It is against this background that this study was conceived to assess the impact of the FCUBE policy in Atwima Kwanwoma district. To achieve this purpose, the following specific objectives were pursued:
Determined the extent to which Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) policy has improved pupils’ performance in Atwima Kwanwoma District.

Ascertained the extent of improvement in infrastructure and staffing of basic schools in Atwima Kwanwoma District.

Determined the extent to which the introduction of FCUBE policy has enhanced school enrollment of students in the District.

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Acknowledgement
Appendix I
Laws, policy documents and reports, which have helped in meeting the educational needs and aspirations of the people since 1951 are the following:
• Accelerated Development Plan for Education (ADPE) 1951.

• The Education Act of 1961.

• The Dzobo Report of 1973.

• The New Structure and Content of Education 1974.

• The Provisional National Defense Council Law 42 of 1983.

• The Education Commission Report of 1986, (which led to the Education Reform Policy of 1987).

• The Education Commission Report on Basic and Secondary Education 1987/88
• The Education Reform Program 1987/88,
• The Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) Policy Document, 1996.

• The FCUBE Policy Program of Operations, 1996.

• The Ghana Education Trust Fund – GET Fund Act 2000. (Act 581).Appendix II (ACRONYMS)
Appendix III

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