1.1Problem statement
1.2Aim and Objective
1.3Scope and Limitation
2.1Foot step power generation system for rural energy application to run AC and DC loads.

2.2Foot step power generation
2.3Footstep energy harvesting system using piezoelectric concept
3.1Block Diagram
3.2Flow chart
3.4List of Component
3.4.2Full bridge rectifier
3.4.5strip board
3.5Gantt chart
Chapter 4: Expected result
4.2Expected result
Chapter 5 conlusionList of Figure
figure 1Example of block diargramfigure 2The flow of the project
figure 3Example of piezoelectric sensor
figure 4Example of full bridge
figure 5Example of capacitor
figure 6Example of resistor
figure 7Example of stripboard
Table 1Progress of FYP1
Table 2progress of FYP2
Chapter 1 introduction
For the alternative method to produce electricity, there are many type of methods by which that electricity can be produced, this piezoelectric characteristic in conducting current or voltage can be effective method to produce electricity.

As we know walking is the most common activity in human life. When a person walks, he will lose the energy to the road surface in the form of impact. The foot fall on the ground during every step when he transfers of is weight on the road surface. The energy can be tapped and converted in the usable electrical form. This journal is how was current and voltage can be producing after the impact of piezoelectrical sensor.

Problem statement
Nowadays, the need for clean and renewable energy is a priority for all type industries. However, there is problem about this piezoelectric. The output power is to low. The output power can only produce in milliwatt only. We need to add something to boost up the power so that it can handle the load in the long term. Beside that, the average current from the piezoelectric is to small because of high impedance and the output voltage is very low and unregulated because of every step we walked in Piezo sensor it not produces the same output voltage.
Thus, the innovation of this studies it should be get higher output power to handle the load. The idea of this studies we can produce clean energy by step on piezoelectric so that can convert kinetic energy to electrical energy.

The aim of this research is to collect the data output power from piezoelectric sensor. In order to achieving the aim of this research such as:
To study how the piezoelectric to produce the electricity.

To study the current and voltage and how to stabilize it.

To study how the piezoelectric to reduce the energy consumption.

This research is focusing about the conversion kinetic to electrical energy in walk space and the generation output value based on the we step on piezo sensor. This is my list of my scope and limitation of this research:
To stabilize the current and voltage by using the piezoelectric
This research is focusing on the output voltage and current and how to stabilize it. To get best performance when user want to use the energy.

By adding the battery, it is suitable to help the economical energy.

As we know there is life span on battery. However, we want to reduce by use battery so that the project will run hundred percent by piezoelectric and not depending on battery.

Constant the flow input source
This research is focusing about by adding the boost chopper on the circuit it will help the input source to get stabilize output.

In this chapter will explain of the theory and various sources such as journal and article that have similar research with my project. The article and journal will be summarized. From this the article and journal will get the idea for this research.

Foot step power generation system for rural energy application to run AC and DC loads.

In this journal is about foot step power generation system for rural energy application to run AC and DC load written by Anilkumar G.V Anil. Was published on April 10,2015. this project they are using generator to generate the energy by walk on upper plate then it will contact rack pinion and generator and touch the lower plate. Then after they get the energy its neutralizer the AC ripple to get smooth energy. After that, the energy will store in the battery before to use. When they want to use the energy, the energy will go to the tank circuit. In tank circuit they have an inverter which is they convert DC to AC after that it will go to transformer to step up the energy so that the energy can supply to the load. The application of this project is for home application, street-lightening. This project also can be used in emergency power failure situations.

Foot step power generation
In this journal is about foot step power generation by Ansari Masroof, was published on Dec 10, 2016 this research is about the weight can be effect of piezoelectric. The basic working of this research is piezoelectric. The implement of this was using wooden plates above and below that is sensor and moveable spring. They not using non-conventional energy to use foot step is to converting kinetic energy to electrical energy. They are using 16 sensors of piezoelectric which are connected parallel to get more output power. Also, they are using battery rechargeable connected to the inverter to convert DC to AC. Type of inverter are using 12volt DC to the 230volt AC so that supply can active the load. From what I observe in this research that a person 75kg can produce 40V while step on the piezo sensor. In theory if we put more sensor with weight 75kg it will produce more volts. They also put additional component like voltage regulator, rectifier and thyristors to get smooth output. However, there also advantage and disadvantage about this this research. The advantage of this project it is clean energy, no moving part and long service, and less consumption of non-renewable energy. The advantage of this project is only applicable for the place, output affected by temperature variation and initial cost of this arrangement is high.

Footstep energy harvesting system using piezoelectric concept
This journal is about footstep energy harvesting system using piezoelectric concept by Kaviraj A/L Jayaraman, Mohamad Syazwan Bin Shari’at and Telvinderjit Singh, 22 appril, 2013. This project was doing about how produce renewable electricity by using piezoelectric sensor and placed at pathway. Also, to reduce the cost of power generation beside increase the efficiency of generation. This journal was tested with parallel and series connection. However, parallel connection did not show the that increasing the output voltage. The series connection show that the increasing of the output voltage but not in linear proportion. To fix this problem they added the secondary source of power so that can help support the load. That mean, the piezoelectric sensor connects with parallel and the connection output to the load is series so that can support the load.

Based of all the journals and that have been through. All this journal show that the piezoelectric sensor has a common problem with output power, voltage and current. However, to increase the output power need to use many type of sensor or apply reachable battery so that can support the load.

Chapter 3: Methodology
This research is to determine the best solution that can be used in order to achieve aim objective. However, to ensure this research can be made without any problem, knowledge about basic electricity is very important such as current flow, how to increase the voltage when to use series or parallel circuit. Besides that, need to do research more article and journal how they overcome the small output. This project not require high cost because all the device is not to expensive except to decorate the project.

To finish this research, we need to design a circuit and build this project to get actual output and the best output that come.

3.2Block Diagram

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Block Diagram of the project
Based on figure 1, we need to study the characteristic to know how it works what cause that can produce more voltage. Also, the temperature will affect the piezoelectric when temperature high it will get efficiency. After that, we design the circuit to test input and output. As the input of this project using 35mm size of piezoelectric sensors. When large sensor that are using it can produce more energy. This sensor produces output AC voltage. when finish design a circuit, we collect the data from the piezoelectric sensor by using multimeter to see the how much output voltage that can be produce. Lastly, we generate the graph after we collect the data to see different the output voltage and current.


Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: the flow of this project
3.4List of components
19145251433830Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 example of piezoelectric sensor
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 example of piezoelectric sensor
center29337003.4.1Piezoelectric sensor
A piezoelectric sensor is a component that convert the kinetic energy to electric energy. Whenever the pressure was press to the piezo sensor it will the produce the energy. The material that used in piezoelectric is zinc oxide (Zno), barium titanate, and lithium niobat. However, the two plate in piezo sensor was called crystal. There is two type of group of this piezoelectric, ceramics and crystal. The output come from piezo is DC
3.4.2Full bridge rectifier

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 example of a full bridge rectifier
A full bridge rectifier consists four diodes in the circuit. The two diodes (D1 and D2) will produce a half cycle positive charge. The other two diodes (D3 and D4) will produce half cycle a negative charge. Both positive and negative cannot work in the same time. Moreover, the combination half and full wave the voltage can increase. The purpose of this full bridge rectifier is to convert AC to DC voltage.


Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 example of capacitor
A capacitor is a simple passive component that store an electrical charge on their plate when connect to voltage source. The electrical charge produces from capacitor a static voltage. it is like small battery rechargeable. So that, whenever the piezo was generate the source it will store to the capacitor for the later uses.


Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 example of resistor
A resistor is a passive two terminal electrical component that implement electrical resistance as a circuit element. The resistor act to reduce the current flow and at the same time it will lower the voltage level within circuit. In electronic circuit the resistor are used to limit current flow to adjust signal level. Resistor can be fixed resistance that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage.


Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7 example of stripboard
We use stripboard to place all the component in here after we design the circuit. The function of this stripboard is flowing the current and voltage.

3.5Gantt chart
the table below is Gant chart of work during FYP1 and FYP2. All work is followed accordingly.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
find supervisor                                  
final year project briefing                                  
discussion with super visor                                  
find tittle                                  
find journal                                  
solving the problem statement                                  
literature review                                  
collect data                                  
prepare slide presentation                                  
presentation day                                  
compile research report                                
submit the research and slide presentation                                  
Table 1: show the duration pogress of FYP 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
discussion with super visor                                  
final year project briefing                                  
meet supervisor                                  
start doing project                                  
collect the data                                  
solving the problem statement                                  
retest the porject                                  
collect data                                  
prepare slide presentation                                  
presentation day                                  
compile research report                                
submit the research and slide presentation                                  
Table 2 show the duration progress during FYP 2
This chapter explain the method of this project. It shows the progress during to make this research successful. In this chapter also explain why using the component.

this chapter will explain about expected outcome from this project of piezoelectric by walk on it. it will show how the result will get while it is operating. What is cause the piezoelectric generate the energy.

4.1Expected outcome
The expected outcomes of this project it will show that piezoelectric can produce electricity by step on the sensor. With this result it can show that piezoelectric can produce the higher output power to support the load example lamp. This also can reduce the cost of the energy given by supplier TNB. However, it is not easy task to get higher voltage and current because of the output from the piezoelectric is unregulated. This piezoelectric need to step on the sensor continuously to stabilize the output. After the output from piezoelectric it will amplify the current and voltage to get smooth output voltage and current. So with this project it can help the economy saving the money. The effect of this piezoelectric can generate energy by step on the sensor which mean it transfer the kinetic energy convert to the electricity energy.

this project is to research about the piezoelectric can produce more power and to stabilize the outpower so that it can use load example lamp. And this application of this project will place at walk pathway, train station, shopping mall and there are many people used to walk or jogging.

Chapter 5 conclusion
As a conclusion of this research of piezoelectric. With this project can help to reduce the cost of electricity bill because the piezoelectricity is a renewable energy. When the supply not use from the supplier from TNB. If the company like MRT it will grow the production because of using renewable energy. At the same time our country will moving alongside develop countries example Japan.