Manisha Roka Professor David Peeled MAC 283 April 22

Manisha Roka
Professor David Peeled
MAC 283
April 22, 2018

Digital Technology From then to Now
Introduction:
Digital Technology is a way of establishing communication between different machines by breaking down into a binary code. This is a part of Digital Electronic simply where these digital electronic circuits are made from assemblies of logic circuits or logic gates. Also, in simple terms, it’s a representation of Boolean Algebra. Hence, digital technologies constitute these electronic circuits that uses digital signals to transmit information between machines. Digital technology is generally a base two process where digitized informations are recorded in binary code of combinations of the digits ‘0’ and ‘1’, called bits, that represent words and images. It allows surplus amounts of information to be compressed on small storage devices that can be easily preserved and transported. Digitization also quickens data transmission speeds allowing these flow of signals in a continuous range from one place to another place. We can see how this has transformed in the life of people in how to communicate, learn, and work. Digital circuits have been hugely successful, so the majority of consumer electronics are primarily constructed from digital circuits in the form of hardware/software.

Boolean Algebra and logic gates are the very building blocks of all the digital circuits. Every digital chip and computer can be constructed with logic gates, which are based on Boolean algebra and its functions.

In Boolean Algebra, a variable can only have two values: 1 or 0, true or false, high or low, etc.

A Boolean function consists of one or more Boolean operations and produces a single Boolean value i.e. output from input values and these output and input values can only be either 0 or 1.

Boolean algebra was first created by the English mathematician George Boole (1815-1864). The Boolean algebra codifies rules of relationship between mathematical quantities to one of two possible values: true or false, 1 or 0. So, all arithmetic operations performed with Boolean quantities have but one of two possible outcomes: either 1 or 0. There are three basic Boolean arithmetic operations:
Boolean addition which is equivalent to the OR logic function, as well as parallel switch contacts can be shown as:
0 + 0 = 0
0 + 1 = 1
1 + 0 = 1
1 + 1 = 1
While Boolean multiplication, which is equivalent to the AND function as well as series switch contacts can be shown as:
0 x 0 = 0
0 x 1 = 0
1 x 0 = 0
1 x 1 = 1
Hence, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device for implementing a Boolean function: i.e, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. The main universal logic gates used in the digital circuits are:
NOT Implements logical negation.

A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results.

AND Implements logical conjunction.

A HIGH output (1) results only if all the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If none or not all inputs to the AND gate is HIGH, a LOW output results
NAND Produces false output only if all its inputs are true.

Output is complement to that of the AND gate.
A LOW (0) output results only if both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if one or both inputs are LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results
NOR Result of negation of OR operator.

A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate are LOW (0); if one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results.

XOR Implements an Exclusive- Or,
A true output results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is true. If both inputs are false (0/LOW) or both are true, a false output results.

XNOR Implements logical equality.

Complement of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate
A high output (1) results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same. If one but not both inputs are high (1), a low output (0) results.

OR Implements logical disjunction.

A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results.

Figure: Table Showing Different Logic Gates
Methodology:
Digital hardware and software components (internal and external) used to transform data into a digital solution. When digital systems are connected, they form a network. For example;
A smartphone is a digital system that has software (apps, an operating system), input components (for example, touch screen, keyboard, camera and microphone), output components (for example, screen and speakers), memory components (for example, silicon chips, solid state drives), communication components (for example, SIM card, wifi, bluetooth or mobile network antennas), and a processor made up of one or more silicon chips.

A desktop computer with specific software and hardware components for dairy farming. The computer is connected via cables to milking equipment and via wi-fi to sensors that read tags on the cows. Through these hardware components the software records how much milk each cow provides. Such systems can also algorithmically control attaching milking equipment to each cow, providing feed and opening gates.

Project Analysis:
Digital technology has revolutionized the way most of the equipments work. Data is converted into binary code and then reassembled back into original form at reception point. Since these can be easily manipulated, it offers a wider range of options. Digital equipment is more expensive than analog equipments.

Many devices come with built in translation facilities from analog to digital. Microphones and speaker are perfect examples of analog devices. Analog technology is cheaper but there is a limitation of size of data that can be transmitted at a given time.

Digital devices translate and reassemble data and in the process are more prone to loss of quality as compared to analog devices. Computer advancement has enabled use of error detection and error correction techniques to remove disturbances artificially from digital signals and improve quality.

Digital technology has been most efficient in cellular phone industry. Analog phones have become redundant even though sound clarity and quality was good.

Analog technology comprises of natural signals like human speech. With digital technology this human speech can be saved and stored in a computer.Up until computers began to dominate science and technology in the early 20th century, virtually every measurement was analog. If you wanted to measure an electric current, you did so with a moving-coil meter that was equipped with a pointer moving over a dial. The quicker the pointer moved up the dial, the higher the current in your circuit, with the pointer being an analogy of the current. All kinds of measuring devices operated in a similar way, from speedometers and weighing machines to sound-level meters and seismographs.

But analog technology isn’t just about measuring things using dials and pointers. When someone says something is analog, it simply means it’s not digital: the job it performs or the information it handles doesn’t involve processing numbers electronically. For example, an old-style film camera is sometimes referred to as analog technology. It’s able to capture an image on a piece of plastic film coated with silver-based chemicals, which react to light. VCRs, tape players, and record players, are also some other examples of analog devices. This is because they record data linearly from one point to another. Imagine a bumpy line moving from left to right — that is what an analog audio recording would look like. Analog devices read the media, such as tapes or records, by scanning the physical data off the media.

If you have an analog watch, for example, it tells the time with hands that move around a dial, the position of the hands being a measurement of time. How much the hands move is directly related to what time it is. If the hour hand sweeps across two segments of the dial, it shows that twice as much time has passed compared to if it moved one segment. This sounds obvious, but it’s more subtle than it first appears, since the hand’s movements over the dial are a way of representing passing time. Basically, it’s not the same thing as time itself, but a representation or an analogy of time or let’s say for another best example is record player where it reads the bumps and dips in the grooves of the record and translates the information into an audio signal. An audio CD player, however, reads ones and zeros off a compact disc and translates that information into an audio signal. However, the ones and zeros only estimate the actual soundwave, whereas a record player records the exact sound. When you hear terms like ;sampling rate; or ;bit rate,; these refer to how many times per second the digital signal is sampled. The higher the number, the more accurate the estimate is, which translates into higher quality sound or video.

So why is digital technology used if analog provides a better representation of the recorded information? Well, since computers perform digital computations, they can only work with digital media. Therefore, all analog audio or video media must be converted to digital to work on a computer. Once the information is digital, computers can be used to edit the data and create effects that were never possible with analog media. Digital media is non-linear, which means it can be edited or played back starting at any point, which can be a huge timesaver compared to working with tape. Digital information also does not ;wear out; after repeated use like tapes or records do, which results in much better longevity for digital media.

Just because digital technology has its advantages doesn’t mean it’s always better than analog. An analog watch might be much more accurate than a digital one if it uses a high-precision movement to measure passing time. Generally, the most expensive watches in the world are analog ones, though the world’s most accurate atomic clocks show time with digital displays.

But will information stored in digital form last as long as analog information? Museums are filled with paper documents, and ones written on store or clay, that date back thousands of years, but no one has the first email or cell phone conversation saved. If you open a history book on photography you’ll find reproductions of the earliest photos, but you won’t see any pictures of the first digital photo.

Conclusion:
There are many Positive aspects of using digital technology among which I would like to include greater interconnectedness, easier communication, and the exposure of information that in the past could have more easily been suppressed by totalitarian regimes.The Revolutions of 2011 were enabled by social networking and smartphone technology; however these revolutions in hindsight largely failed to reach their goals as hardcore Islamist governments and in Syria a civil war have formed in the absence of the dictatorships that were toppled. Digital technology has made it easier for the small markets like for example; Without the World Wide Web (WWW), globalization and outsourcing would not be nearly as feasible as they are today. The digital revolution radically changed the way individuals and companies interact. Small regional companies were suddenly given access to much larger markets. Concepts such as On-demand services and manufacturing and rapidly dropping technology costs made possible innovations in all aspects of industry and everyday life.The Internet, especially the WWW in the 1990s, opened whole new avenues for communication and information sharing. The ability to easily and rapidly share information on a global scale brought with it a whole new level of freedom of speech. Individuals and organizations were suddenly given the ability to publish on any topic, to a global audience, at a negligible cost, particularly in comparison to any previous communication technology.

While there have been huge benefits to society from the digital technologies, especially in terms of the accessibility of information, there are a number of concerns. Expanded powers of communication and information sharing, increased capabilities for existing technologies, and the advent of new technology brought with it many potential opportunities for exploitation. The digital revolution helped usher in a new age of mass surveillance, generating a range of new civil and human rights issues. Reliability of data became an issue as information could easily be replicated, but not easily verified. The digital technologies made it possible to store and track facts, articles, statistics, as well as minutiae hitherto unfeasible.From the perspective of the historian, a large part of human history is known through physical objects from the past that have been found or preserved, particularly in written documents. Digital records are easy to create but also easy to delete and modify. Changes in storage formats can make recovery of data difficult or near impossible, as can the storage of information on obsolete media for which reproduction equipment is unavailable, and even identifying what such data is and whether it is of interest can be near impossible if it is no longer easily readable, or if there is a large number of such files to identify.These problems are further compounded by the use of digital rights management and other copy prevention technologies which, being designed to only allow the data to be read on specific machines, may well make future data recovery impossible.

Thus I would like to conclude my paper saying that digital technology is a revolutionary technology.

ms can also algorithmically control attaching milking equipment to each cow, providing feed and opening gates.

Annotated Bibliography:
“An Intro to Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates – Part 1.” Norwegian Creations, 31 Oct. 2017, www.norwegiancreations.com/2017/10/an-intro-to-boolean-algebra-and-logic-gates-part-1/.
“Boolean Algebra.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Apr. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean_algebra.
“Category:Digital Technology.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Apr. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Digital_technology.