Introduction Capital

Introduction
Capital:
Havana
Geographical location:
Cuba lies west of the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Gulf of Mexico, south of the Straits of Florida, northwest of the Windward Passage, and northeast of the Yucatán Channel

Population:
About 11 million
Languages
The official language spoken in Cuba is Spanish and other languages spoken in the country include Haitian Creole, Lucimi, Galician, and Corsican
Ethnic group
White: 64.1%
Mulatto/Mestizo: 26.6%
Black: 9.3%.
Religion:
Traditionally Cuba is a catholic country. Other denominations include the Anglican Church, Baptists, Episcopalians, Jehovah’s Witness, Methodists, Pentecostals, Presbyterians, Protestantism, Seventh-day Advent, Islam and Buddhism.

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Urban/Rural population:

Socio-economic indicators
GDP: 87.13 billion US dollars
GNI: US$ 6,570.00
HDI: 68th out of 188
Affluence and poverty
The main causes of poverty in Cuba.
U.S. Embargo
From 1961 US forced a restriction that depressed Cuban exporters, 95% of export is control by US. This a reason most of Cuban people can access to American products even food, to electronics and internet access. In this way, the prohibition extensively confines Cubans’ access to products, partners and the means to ascend out of poverty.
2. Agriculture
similar to many countries Cuba is also depend on agriculture , the crop is sugar , im early 1990 Cuban economy Was depend on sugar, but they fail to export it in international market, due to the us intervention on the sea side.
3. Allies
Cuba was ally of USSR but, when the Soviet Union distorted in 1991, Cuba experienced a 35 percent reduction of its GDP. In a country of only 11 million people, this financial collide was more extreme than the American Great Depression. Cuba has yet to fully pull through from this economic blow.

Rate of growth:
The rate of growth of growth of Cuba is good in many fields like education, health sector and they are growing in economically as well, so over all their growth is good.
Inequality
The inequality is more visible in Cuba in term of economy, they also a race , and class problem most of the economy is in hand of the upper class
Social mobility:
Beside this entire problem they have access to social mobility, they can go everywhere they have great changes in many sectors education, health, everyone can access these things and get benefits.

Education system:
Before the upheaval in Cuba education was unavailable to half of the Cuban children. Literacy rate was at best 60%. In 1960, the radical war happened for literacy. Since then Cuba has maintained high standards of educational development. Education definitely was an important concern in Cuba and the infrastructure was very strong.

Primary education has a main concern in the country. There are numerous schools where attendance is obligatory from ages 6 to 15 or 16. All students are required to wear their college uniforms with the color denoting grade level. primary education lasts for 6 years. On the other hand there are 2 separate sections in the secondary education. These are the basic secondary education and the pre-university education. The curriculum in primary and secondary colleges is based on concepts of hard work, self-control and love for country. After students accomplished their secondary education, they have the option to choose from pre-university education and technical or professional education. Bachillerato (High School grade), are awarded to those students who done the courses of pre-secondary education.

Higher education in Cuba means the College or university education. Higher polytechnic (an institution of higher education offering courses at degree level or below, especially in vocational subjects), study centers higher academic institutes, higher educational centers and many more facilities are present for higher education in Cuba. The Ministry for better Education is responsible for advanced schooling. They are the one who takes attention of undergraduate and postgraduate education. Overall Cuba has 47 universities and about 112, 000 students who are enroll in these schools

State of media
The press position is rank as one of the most complex on the globe level due to the political and physical distribution of the Cuban people. Since the succeed of the Castro-led makes in the 50s, a significant Cuban banish community has flourished in United States, especially in Southwest Florida. This offshore Cuban community has made a major volume of information during its decades of deport. Part of their output has been around English, created for the audience in USA, while the rest has been in Roman language, intended at utilization by the people of Cuba. In the same way, the press contributions on the island, including both the government-sponsored media |and others of the opposition, have been divided between those aimed at domestic and international audience.

Brief history and political setup
The first European to arrive at Cuba was Christopher Columbus in 1492. At that time the native people lived by farming cassava, maize and yams. They also used to grow tobacco. In 1511 Diego Velasquez occupied the island of Cuba and this individual founded several settlements including Havana. The natives shattered by European diseases, to which they had no level of confrontation. From 1526 the Roman language imported African slaves into Cuba.
By late eighteenth century Cuba was succeeded by growing and transferring sugar. The plantations were done by huge amounts of slaves. Yet, in the 19th century there was clearly an increase movement for freedom.

The struggle for Cuban independence started in 1868 when a landowner called Carlos Manuel de Cespedes freed his slaves. Therefore that commenced the Ten Years War. It ended in failure in 1878. Then simply in 1886 slavery in Cuba was abolished.

The Second War of Freedom started in 1895. In 1898 the USA proceeded to go to war with Spain and Italy. US forces occupied Tanque and Spain surrendered soon afterwards. The peace agreement made Spain surrender all claim to Cuba. Even after that, the war Tanque was occupied by all of the US forces for practically 4 years. They left in 1902 and Cuba became supposedly independent but in reality it was took over by the USA.

In the early 20th hundred years most people in Tanque remained very poor despite their efforts to modernize the nation. In 1924 Gerardo Machado was elected president of Cuba. The constitution banned him from more than one term but when his term resulted in 1928 Machado was on power. However Machado was defeated an institution of higher education offering courses at degree level or below, especially in vocational subject in 1933.
In 1952 Fulgencio Batista staged a revolution in Cuba and became its ruler. During that time compared to other Asian American countries, Cuba was wealthy and its people had a relatively high standard of living. Literacy rates were high and medical care was relatively good. Education in Cuba was of the high standard. Cuba was known for freelance writers

Politics situation:
Cuba is a authoritarian communist state since 1959 based on the “one state – one party” principle. The power is most in the hand of president. The current ruler is Raul Castro
For more than two years a completely unexampled struggle has raged in Cuba between the dissatisfied native population and the mother power. Not only has its worker wreck over a bigger area than in any previous contest, but the effects have been more widely felt and the expense of life and treasure to Spain has been significantly greater. The trouble proceeds on a foothold of mutual destruction and damage. Day by day the confidence gathers strength that it is visionary for Spain to hope that Cuba, even if eventually conquered by complete exhaustion. The policy which certainly attempts to make Tanque worthless to the Cubans, whenever they succeed.

Ranking on Democracy Index:
According to the democracy ranking of 2018 the Cuba is ranked 122,there are some indicators by which a country is consider as a democratic state, like,
Freedom of speech
Right to vote
Freedom of choice
Right to live
Free media
No military intervention
Free and fair elections
Good Governance
civil liberties
Economic and Social Rights
Rule of Law
Government Accountability

Corruption

Government Responsiveness

The above are some indicators of the democracy , if a country following these thing it would be democratic , all these are inter linked to each other if one indicator is going to affect , automatically all will be effect and the trend broke and the rights of a citizens
If freedom of speech were given to the citizen automatically very things happened things , the people demand from the government and they asked the performance of the government and the is responsible to answer

The role of state in the country:
Cuba is a communist political system since 1959, and the one party system and this state is also a under the Dictatorship, and one more thing Cuba is not a state it is a country under the communist regime as the type of government,
If we look up the political freedom, as communist state one family control the military and as well as politics
Every political organizing outside the PCC is illegal, and independent campaigning is not permitted. Politics dissent, whether spoken or written, is a punishable offense, and dissidents are systematically harassed, detained, attacked, and frequently sentenced to many years of imprisonment for apparently minor infractions
And yes it was the colony of Spain and end Spanish American war.
How globalization has influenced the nature of state?
Globalization can influenced the nature of the state, in current time every state ids depend on each other, in term of politics and economy, we know that today’s world is considered a global village, where everyone is connected the world through internet, by this they know what’s happing in world, if a state is violating the rights of the citizens, they can raised voice for their rights, because they know what state should do for them, as a result different moment were emerged. And mostly the people know what other countries, that how they protect the rights of citizens and they try to raised their voice for the rights, like freedom, and as well as in economic term.
On major thin is that the domestic politics affects the world system, and also it’s surrounding and by that every country look their interest there and by they build their relation

Political Parties and Party Systems
As I mentioned above that in Cuba is a communist country and there is one party system all things are under control of the government,
One party system and no other party exist there, if anyone can rise there voice he or she will be punished.
AS Cuba is under communist system, and there one any political cultural, one party system which control all the system, like economy as well as freedom.

The bureaucracy in Cuba
It was the failure of the projected 10 million-ton sugar harvest in 1970 that provided the opportunity for a general reassessment of the whole preceding period, and was the launching pad for the “institutionalization” of the revolutionary process. The giant zafra had been a major objective of the Cuban revolutionary leadership, to which the whole economy had been geared, together with massive human resources. The failure to meet this target led Castro to draw up an extremely self-critical balance sheet, denouncing administrative methods and the lack of popular participation in the process of economic management. Thus, he spoke of “substituting democratic methods for the administrative methods that run the risk of becoming bureaucratic methods.”
In the management of the economy, the post-reform Soviet model is being followed on almost every level in a bid to eliminate the high waste/negative growth pattern associated with the previous approach. It is thus no coincidence that Cuban dependence on the U.S.S.R. seemed to have reached a point of no return by 1972. As Mesa-Lago notes, some 60 percent of Cuban trade was with the Soviet Union (70 percent with Come-on), approximately the same proportion it had been with the United States in the 1950s. The chapter of the book dealing with changes in the Cuban economic structure and policies is appropriately enough entitled “Realism and Rationality,” from which we have just chosen a few examples to illustrate the general trend of post-1970 developments.
The decisive element in the “institutionalization” of revolutionary processes lies in the political transformations, however, and more specifically the process of democratic elections, which began with an experiment in Matanzas province during 1974.For Cubans, getting anything done can be a real nightmare because of the amount of paperwork required. It can also be an expensive process because of the bribes taken by state officials.
People who have been caught in the spider’s web of bureaucracy say it is usual to pay a sweetener to cut through the hard and apparently endless process of obtaining the right approvals. Since most Cuban intellectuals approved the ideological and moral authority of the revolutionary leadership. Its role in regulating the debate of ideas became important, particularly in the second half of the 1960s. Against the backdrop of Cuba’s growing international isolation, and marked by US aggression against Vietnam and defeats of the armed struggle in Latin America, the interpretation and adoption of original ideas forming cultural policy became polarized and more restraining, especially after 1968.
Politics;
The president is both the head of state and government. He is elected by the National Assembly for a term of five years. The president has executive powers and is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He controls most aspects of Cuban life through the Cuban Communist Party (PCC).Legislative powers are vested in the National Assembly whose members are elected by popular Municipal Assemblies. 614 members are elected for 5 years in a two-round system with single candidate ballots. The Cuban Constitution only recognizes one legal party: the Cuban Communist Party (PCC) whose secretary is Fidel Castro Ruiz.
Marxist-Leninism (“Stalinism”) became a worldwide movement. In a number of countries its leaders came to power and established replication of the Soviet Union: Eastern Europe, China, North Korea, Indochina, and Cuba. Shachtman wrote, “The elements of the new ruling class are created under capitalism. They are part of that huge social concoction like the middle classes, intellectuals, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled; individuals from the liberal professions; officials and employees of all sorts, including those from the distended but poor governmental apparatus; and above all labor bureaucrats…. Under the right conditions, such “middle class” forces can be incorporated into a revolutionary working class movement. Under other conditions they can be part of a fascist movement. But they have an natural attraction toward Soviet Union-type systems. Intellectuals are easily attracted to the vision of a society in which “brains” rule (what Bakunin had called the despotism of “socialist savants”). The workers and peasants are seen by them as potential weapons in their hands to bring down the current rulers. “In Stalinism they find a movement able to appeal to the masses for the struggle against capitalism, but yet one which does not demand of them–as the socialist movement does–the abandonment of the ideology which is common to all oppressor classes, namely: command is the privilege of superiors, obedience the lot of inferiors, and the mass must be ruled by kindly masters for its own good.”
DEMOCRACY;
The revolutionary achievement of 1959 established new concept of democracy in Cuba, one that intended to ensure access to active political life for large sectors of the previously excluded population. Toward this end, policies for universal social addition were developed. The people’s political practices communicated the country’s wealth into the hands of the poor, generating a great deal of social mobility and increasing popular participation. The context of imperialist aggression and the development process itself merged notions that limited popular participation: the apex of bureaucracy, unity understood as unanimity, and the adoption to a certain extent of the currents of Soviet Marxism. The current challenges to broadcast democracy in Cuba are three-tiered: to socialize power, to promote social diversity and to develop the revolutionary ideology. The Cuban Revolution was seen as an irregularity by the official Marxism of the time (which interpreted it as a petty bourgeois process), although it complied with much of the Marxism program regarding the tasks of the social revolution. nce the score with the political power had been settled, the Revolution continued to follow the Marxist script. It removed the properties of those who were most committed to the military dictatorship; armed popular militias; destroyed the structure of direct rule of the bourgeoisie by dissolving the regular army, the police and agencies linked to them; took apart the bourgeois state apparatus, replacing it with a new state order of popular content that advocated an independent foreign policy; and laid the foundation for the impracticality of reproducing the social base of the Ancient command, by systematically attacking private property: In just four years it expelled large estates; implemented the land reform; and nationalized surface and subsurface resources, oil refining, sugar, electricity, telephones, housing, cement, banks and foreign trade, among other sectors. While regenerating public life by prohibiting prostitution, illegal gambling and usury. It destined unfairness for reasons of gender and skin color, redesigned the school system to ensure increased coverage in access to education, launched the “literacy campaign”, created the party of Rural Doctors to assist a historically neglected population, increased the supply of jobs and minimum wages, and promoted a national economic policy with control of foreign exchange and imports, as well as the search for new markets. The recently started reformulation of the Cuban state design was also called “privatization. So far, it has addressed basically the economic field. The changes it generated in directly political institutionalization (operation of state representative bodies, mechanisms of representation of sectoral and group interests, procedures for public control of new fields of government and private activity, etc.) are yet to be discussed. With its experience of 50 years, Cuban revolutionary politics after 2010 could reframe its key points of 1959. If these points consisted both in increasing the number of people who could have access to active political life and placing social justice at the core of democratic politics, they could be reformulated as follows: to universalize citizenship rights and promote personal, social and national independence.

Military intervention in politics
Cuba was a part of Spain
American Spain war resulted in liberation of Cuba but give us the authority in military intervention
US placed president of Cuba and established its naval base name Guantanamo bey in Cuba.
In 1950, Castro with chegavera started ignition against the government of Batista,
US fully supported the rebellion
After topal of the government of Cuba the Castro took the presidency and started a good relation with US
Us heavily invested in cuba to stable the economy
But cuba took turn, and nationalized its big industries including the united state investments and imposed heavy taxes on imports
Major imports are from US
When US started pressurizing Cuba, it started trade with Russia and changed the form of government to communism
Now the Switzerland is playing a role of mediator between US and Cuba whenever they want to meet.
after Cuba shot down two U.S. civilian airplanes the US tights their policies .
But On April 13 President Barack Obama announced that he would lift some longstanding restrictions,
allowing Cuban Americans to visit and send remittances to their families and easing but not
removing the 47-year-old economic embargo on the island nation
so from the the 1959 the Cuban people were living under the socialists state and they are now in block of Russia and both countries have good relation
in this country there is no any class system and every citizens are equal no any calss is rulling here ,
The current government is dictatorship and the personal is army man who is ruling and they give citizen many incentives like economic and other but everything is under control of governmentin cuba
In Cuba there is one party system and they control all the political way.

Nationalist and secessionist tendency
The Cuban nationalist and secessionist movement are actively working since 1959. Felipe Rivero left Cuba in 1959 and settled in New York City and came back in 1961 and Founded the Cuban Nationalist Movement (MNC) but he failed to exercise it, he spent 19 months in Cuba’s prisons.
The CNM, a violent anti-Castro Cuban exile group, was founded in 1960. And after that On 11 September, 1974 the Cuban terrorist Eduardo Arocena Fernandez, alias Omar and three other elements in the U.S. based organization emerged for terrorist activities against Cuba’s interests. They were so-called Omega 7.
Cuban Nationalist Movement emerged in 1963, led by leaders such as Armando Santana, Eduardo AROSENA and brothers. As we know there is one political system and no other parties took part in politics and they don’t allowed such kind of movement, and the Cuban government has a policy for their citizens that they give the concept of neocolonial by which the citizens can upgrade their economic condition and they must have the productive capacity to satisfy the internal market
Neocolonial is a power must have absolute commercial and financial control, without competition from other core powers

Conclusion

Factor that play an important role in natural of politics are economy, cultural, class difference, language difference and society.
If we look the economy in a country, if they are in hand of some elite class and rest of the population is living in poor condition then it ill role negative effect on the natural of politics, may some small groups emerged and they will affect the political system and start protest against the elite and the political instabilities happened and maybe it case civil war by this society can changed and there maybe rules and laws will be disobeyed
Cultural is an important thing, according to many research every 25km there is a new cultural if the cultural of any nation or tribe is considered or ignoring them there will clash of cultural no one is ready to accept it and there is disorder in a society and like above I said that there will be a misbalanced and such society fought for their rights and some opposed them and by this the result will goes into wrong direction
Like language and class difference will also cause same effect on the nature of politics
Because the elite section of the country want to oppress the low class society and by the result from the small group many people stood up for their rights and they may case civil war
So to maintain the political nature the country/state should take care of all citizens and should create a class less society, where they protect the rights of citizen
At they got good result and political stability will happened
Otherwise may they country will go in hand of Army or other groups.

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