Introduction

Introduction :
Marpol is international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships. This agreement was signed in 1973 and some amendments were made to this convention in 1978. Also, this convention includes many measures to reduce the dumping of waste, oil spill and combustion waste in the marine environment. Its main objective is to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution with oil and other harmful substances and to reduce the accidental discharge of these substances. This agreement was implemented in 1983, and in 2005 it was signed by 136 countries. In addition, the convention currently consists of six technical annexes, including provisions aimed at preventing and reducing pollution from ships (incidental pollution or routine operation), and most annexes have designated special areas for discharge with strict controls on discharges. Here is the list of the marpol 73/78 annexes. convention.

Annex I:
The prevention of pollution by oil & oily water. Annex I is the first application made by marpol and one of the most important international marine environmental agreement. This convention was applied to reduce the pollution seas and oceans from ships. Annex I was began to be enforced on 2 October 1983 to achieved their aim which is to keep the marine environment in safe by the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substance and minimize the accidental discharge of such substance. Marpol Annex I include the discharge requirements for the prevention of pollution by oil and oily materials. It began enforce the oil discharge criteria described in the 1969 amendments to the 1954 Oil Pollution Convention.It also include the idea of “special areas” which are considered to be at risk to oil pollution. Discharge of oil within them have been completely outlawed. The first half of Marpol Annex I deals with engine room waste. They deal with new technologies and equipment such as: Oily water separators (OWS) and Oil Content meters (OCM) and The second half of the Marpol Annex I deal with cleaning the cargo areas and tanks. Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment (ODME) is a technology that has greatly helped improve efficiency.

Annex II:
The Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk. It began enforced in 6 April 1987 and it tells us that the discharge criteria for the elimination of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in large quantities. It divides substances into and introduces detailed operational standards and measures. The discharge of pollutants is allowed only to reception facilities with certain concentrations and conditions. No matter what, no discharge of residues containing pollutants is permitted within 12 miles of the nearest land. Stricter restrictions apply to “special areas”.
Annex II covers the International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code) in conjunction with Chapter 7 of the SOLAS Convention. Previously, chemical tankers constructed before 1 July 1986 must comply with the requirements of the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code).

Annex III:
Prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form and it entry to force in 1 July 1992. Annex III include the general requirements for the standards on packing, marking, labeling, documentation, stowage, quantity subtraction, division and notifications for preventing pollution by harmful substances. The Annex is in line with the procedures detailed in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, which has been expanded to include marine pollutants. The amendments entered into force on 1 January 1991.

Annex IV:
The Pollution by sewage from ships and it entry to force in 27 September 2003. Include the requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage from ships.

Annex V:
The Pollution by garbage from ships and it entry to force in 31 December 1988. It specifies the distances from land in which materials may be disposed of and subdivides different types of garbage and marine debris. The requirements are much stricter in a number of “special areas” but perhaps the most prominent part of the Annex is the complete ban of dumping plastic into the ocean.

Annex VI:
The Prevention of air pollution from ships and it entry to force in 19 May 2005. It include the requirements to regulate the air pollution being emitted by ships, including the emission of ozone-depleting substances, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Sulphur Oxides (SOx), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and shipboard incineration. It also establishes requirements for reception facilities for wastes from exhaust gas cleaning systems, incinerators, fuel oil quality, for off-shore platforms and drilling rigs and for the establishment of SOx Emission Control Areas (SECAs).

Conclusion:
Marpol is international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships and it contain six annex which are; Prevention of pollution by oil & oily water, Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk, Prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form, Pollution by sewage from ships, Pollution by garbage from ships and The Prevention of air pollution from ships. All these annexes to achieve the objective which is to preserve the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution with oil and other harmful substances and to reduce the accidental discharge of these substances.

Reference:
International maritime organization. (2017).MARPOL Consolidated Edition, 2017. picture. Retrieved on 30 May 2018 from https://www.amnautical.com/products/marpol-consolidated-edition-2017#.Ww_wYCJRWEc

wikipedia. Marpol 73/78. Retrieved on 30 May 2018 from https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/MARPOL_73/78