In court, Elizabeth denies that Proctor has committed adultery with Abigail Williams. This implies that John Proctor’s wife must respect her husband and save their reputation by not talking badly of him. Elizabeth is forced to be silent and stand by her husband’s side no matter what. This demonstrates the superiority of a husband during this period of time and their power over the household. Early on, the Reverend Parris is the sole authoritative voice in Salem, as the minister and graduate of Harvard College. However, he is replaced, by the arrival of Reverend Hale, who gains his authority from books and learning– which is then further replaced by the courts and their officials.