GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY 1541296139737747767411811657 Government engineering college Gandhinagar A Project report on “Bionic Arm” B

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
1541296139737747767411811657
Government engineering college Gandhinagar
A Project report on
“Bionic Arm”
B. E., Semester – VII
(Electronic and communication Branch)
Submitted by Group:
Sr.no. Name of student Enrollment no.

1 Ajay Rathod 150130111086
2 Sarthak Patel 150130111093
Guided by
Prof. Sandeep Rajput
Head of Department
Dr. K.G.Maradia
4772024180975015412961397377

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27241502190750 Government engineering college, Gandhinagar
Certificate
This is certify to Ajay Rathod having Enrollment no. 150130111086 student of E.C. successfully submitted detail project report of “Bionic Arm” during the academic year 2018-19.

This project work has been carried out by them in group (02 person) under guidance of Prof.Sandeep Rajput.

Date of Submission:
Faculty guide H.O.D.
(Prof. Sandeep Rajput ) (Dr. K.G.Maradia Sir)
Government engineering college, Gandhinagar28765502038350
Certificate
This is certify to Sarthak Patel having Enrollment no. 150130111093 student of E.C. successfully submitted detail project report of “Bionic Arm” during the academic year 2018-19.

This project work has been carried out by them in group (02 person) under guidance of Prof. Sandeep Rajput.

Date of Submission:
Faculty guide H.O.D.
(Prof. Sandeep Rajput ) (Dr. K.G.Maradia )
Index
1. Problem summary or introduction
2. Aims and Objective of the work
3. Plan of the work
4. Materials and method used
5. Design engineering canvas
5. Application and future prospective
6. References
1. Problem summary or introduction
Bionic Arm
What is a Bionic Arm?
Bionic also known as biologically inspired engineering and it means anything which is made by engineering and look like human (in case of human related things) or it can replace the human and it do same work as human or better than it. So bionic arm means and mechanical arm which will look like human arm and do all work which can done by human.

Why we need Bionic Arm?
A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar functions to a human arm; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints allowing either rotational motion (such as in an articulated robot) or translational (linear) displacement.The links of the manipulator can be considered to form a kinematic chain. The terminus of the kinematic chain of the manipulator is called the end effector and it is analogous to the human hand.

Robotic Arm
The end effector, or robotic hand, can be designed to perform any desired task such as welding, gripping, spinning etc., depending on the application. For example, robot arms in automotive assembly lines perform a variety of tasks such as welding and parts rotation and placement during assembly. In some circumstances, close emulation of the human hand is desired, as in robots designed to conduct bomb disarmament and disposal.

After all this advantage of robotic arm still have few disadvantage like it bulky and It can do one given task for which program is fed in it or some time robotic arm made for only one given task. So now assume you have n number of task than what are you going to do bring n number of robotic arm. This will be very costly and it will take a lot of space then what will be the solution of this problem. The solution of this problem is Bionic Arm.

Bionic Arm
A typical bionic arm is made up of few metal segments, joined by few joints. The computer controls the robot by rotating individual servo connected to each joint. Basic Principle of our bionic arm is to sense the motion and the position of human action and perform the same action continuously as long you want. You have to program each time for specific function while in our bionic arm you don’t have to.

So in bionic arm will look like just human arm and much lighter than robotic arm and it will do all work which can done by human arm but it can do better and more precious than human and you don’t have to fed different program for the different task but it can do nearly all task by just one program.

2. Aims and Objective of the work
Robots are able to do certain tasks much better than humans, but one thing they’re not good at is collaboration so our first aim is the make a bionic arm which good in collaboration with user.

Close collaboration between humans and robots, working as colleagues on assembly lines and in other applications, will be a large part of the future of industrial robotics. In fact, there may come a time when the line between what is made by a human and what is made by a robot is blurred to the point of becoming indistinct. This will be especially pronounced during a transition phase in which robots are still incapable of perfectly reproducing human dexterity, but have enough dexterity and ability to work with delicate objects that they can take over some but not all of the jobs that currently require a human touch.

Our goal is that it will able to work In manufacturing industry and nuclear industry, bomb defusing chemical industry, in hazardous environment, a large fraction of the work is repetitive and judicious application of automation will most certainly result in optimum utilization ofmachine and manpower.

This robot is a mechanical arm, a manipulator designed to perform many different tasks and capableof repeated, variable programming.To perform its assigned tasks, the robot moves parts, objects, tools, and special devices by means of programmed motions and points. The robotic arm performs motions in space. Its function is totransfer objects or tools from point to point, as instructed by the controller.

3. Plan of the work
Plan of the Bionic Arm is as follow:
Step 1:

First make the Arm parts 3d drawing and after that print it by 3d printer and assembler it. Do this things very carefully because it is a very complex process.

When assembling the fingers, make sure the parts are oriented correctly before gluing. Keep all servo motors at 10 or 170 degrees before attaching the servo pulleys to the servo motors. When mounting the servo pulleys, keep fingers in the closed or opened position (according to your servo angles). Then wrap around the servo pulley until the braid wires or strings becomes stretched.

Step 2:
Connection of Hand (Receiver)
At this point, the servos should already be mounted into the forearm. To connect them to the power supply and Arduino, you can use a small breadboard.

Remember to connect the negative on the breadboard to the Arduino’s GND. All the GNDs in a circuit need to be connected for it to work.

I recommend using the power adapter for the nRF24L01+ module. Otherwise, communication may be broken due to insufficient current.

If you encounter the problems: vibration in servo motors, servo motors not working, communication breakdown and in similar situations, supply your Arduino board with external power (like USB).

Block Diagram of the circuit
If you used different pins than pins shown in below, change them in codes
Step 3:
Connections of the Glove (Transmitter)
The flex sensors require a circuit in order for them to be compatible with Arduino. Flex sensors are variable resistors, so I recommend using a voltage divider. I used 10K resistor.

The main GND (ground) wire connected to all individual GND wires from the sensors, gets connected to the GND of the Arduino. The +5 V from the Arduino goes to the main positive voltage wire. The wire from each flex sensor is connected to a separate analog input pin via the voltage divider.

I soldered the circuit onto a small PCB, one that could be easily mounted onto the glove. You can build the circuit on the small breadboard instead of the PCB.

You can use 9V battery for circuit of the glove.

If you used different pins than pins shown in below, change them in codes.

Step 4:
After the flex sensors are connected to the glove, read and note the minimum and maximum values that each flex sensor has detected.

Then enter these values into the transmitter (glove) code.

Keep all servo motors at 10 or 170 degrees before attaching the servo pulleys to the servo motors.

When mounting the servo pulleys, keep fingers in the closed or opened position (according to your servo positions).

Then wrap around the servo pulley until the braid wires becomes stretched.

Move all the fingers to the closed and opened position by checking the servo motors one by one.

Then get the best angles for servo motors (servo angles while fingers closed and opened).

Step 5:
Source Code
#include <Servo.h>
Servo servo_1;
Servo servo_2;
Servo servo_3;
Servo servo_4;
Servo servo_5;
int flex_1 = 0;
int flex_2 = 1;
int flex_3 = 2;
int flex_4 = 3;
int flex_5 = 4;
void setup()
{
servo_1.attach(5);
servo_2.attach(3);
servo_3.attach(9);
servo_4.attach(10);
servo_5.attach(6);
}
void loop()
{
int flex_1_pos;
int servo_1_pos;
flex_1_pos = analogRead(flex_1);
servo_1_pos = map(flex_1_pos, 1020, 1023, 180, 0);
servo_1_pos = constrain(servo_1_pos, 0, 180);
servo_1.write(servo_1_pos);
int flex_2_pos;
int servo_2_pos;
flex_2_pos = analogRead(flex_2);
servo_2_pos = map(flex_2_pos, 1020, 1023, 180, 0);
servo_2_pos = constrain(servo_2_pos, 0, 180);
servo_2.write(servo_2_pos);
int flex_3_pos;
int servo_3_pos;
flex_3_pos = analogRead(flex_3);
servo_3_pos = map(flex_3_pos, 1020, 1023, 0, 180);
servo_3_pos = constrain(servo_3_pos, 0, 180);
servo_3.write(servo_3_pos);
int flex_4_pos;
int servo_4_pos;
flex_4_pos = analogRead(flex_4);
servo_4_pos = map(flex_4_pos, 1020, 1023, 180, 0);
servo_4_pos = constrain(servo_4_pos, 0, 180);
servo_4.write(servo_4_pos);
int flex_5_pos;
int servo_5_pos;
flex_5_pos = analogRead(flex_5);
servo_5_pos = map(flex_5_pos, 1020, 1023, 180, 0);
servo_5_pos = constrain(servo_5_pos, 0, 180);
servo_5.write(servo_5_pos);
}
This program is coded in Arduino Ide, which is open source software. In this program digital pins are connected to servo and analog pins are connected to flex sensor. As flex sensor is a type of variable resistor. Varying resistance in flex sensor is mapped with angle of rotation of of servo motor.

Here we have come up with the movement of micro servo with flex sensor. But the tower power servo would be controlled by the accelerometer, which is in progress.

4. Materials and method used
List of Materials and instruments which are used in this project are as follow:
1) 3d Printer

3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object,with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together). 3D printing is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing. Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and typically are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) file.

There are many different technologies, like stereolithography (SLA) or fused deposit modeling (FDM). Thus, unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing builds a three-dimensional object from a computer-aided design (CAD) model or AMF file, usually by successively adding material layer by layer
2) Flex Sensor

A flex sensor or bend sensor is a sensor that measures the amount of deflection or bending. Usually, the sensor is stuck to the surface, and resistance of sensor element is varied by bending the surface. Since the resistance is directly proportional to the amount of bend it is used as goniometer, and often called flexible potentiometer.

Types of flex Sensor
Conductive ink based flex sensor
Fibre optic flex sensor
Capacitive flex sensor
Velostat flex sensor (popular among hobbyists)
But here we are going to use resistive flex sensor.

3) Accelerometer
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.1 Proper acceleration, being the acceleration (or rate of change of velocity) of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame,2 is not the same as coordinate acceleration, being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system. For example, an accelerometer at rest on the surface of the Earth will measure an acceleration due to Earth’s gravity, straight upwards (by definition) of g ? 9.81 m/s2. By contrast, accelerometers in free fall (falling toward the center of the Earth at a rate of about 9.81 m/s2) will measure zero.

Accelerometers have multiple applications in industry and science. Highly sensitive accelerometers are components of inertial navigation systems for aircraft and missiles. Accelerometers are used to detect and monitor vibration in rotating machinery. Accelerometers are used in tablet computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always displayed upright. Accelerometers are used in drones for flight stabilization.

4) Arduino Mega

The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560 (datasheet). It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila.

The Mega 2560 is an update to the Arduino Mega, which it replaces.

5) 12V Power Supply

A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power.

Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronicsdevices. Other functions that power supplies may perform include limiting the current drawn by the load to safe levels, shutting off the current in the event of an electrical fault.

6) IC-L7805
Voltage sources in a circuit may have fluctuations resulting in not providing fixed voltage outputs. A voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. 7805 IC, a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulators used to maintain such fluctuations, is a popular voltage regulator integrated circuit (IC). The xx in 78xx indicates the output voltage it provides. 7805 IC provides +5 volts regulated power supply with provisions to add a heat sink.

Voltage sources in a circuit may have fluctuations resulting in not providing fixed voltage outputs. A voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. 7805 IC, a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulators used to maintain such fluctuations, is a popular voltage regulator integrated circuit (IC). The xx in 78xx indicates the output voltage it provides. 7805 IC provides +5 volts regulated power supply with provisions to add a heat sink.

7)Motor driver for Servo/motor driver module ic-L293d

A servo drive receives a command signal from a control system, amplifies the signal, and transmits electric current to a servo motor in order to produce motion proportional to the command signal. Typically, the command signal represents a desired velocity, but can also represent a desired torque or position. A sensor attached to the servo motor reports the motor’s actual status back to the servo drive. The servo drive then compares the actual motor status with the commanded motor status. It then alters the voltage frequency or pulse width to the motor so as to correct for any deviation from the commanded status.

8) MK 996R Tower Pro Servo motor

The MG996R is essentially an upgraded version of the famous MG995 servo, and features upgraded shock-proofing and a redesigned PCB and IC control system that make it much more accurate than its predecessor.The gearing and motor have also been upgraded to improve dead bandwidth and centering.This high-torque standard servo can rotate approximately 120 degrees (60 in each direction).

Specification
Operating voltage: 4.8 V a 7.2 V
Stall torque: 9.4 kgf·cm (4.8 V ), 11 kgf·cm (6 V)
Operating speed: 0.17 s/60º (4.8 V), 0.14 s/60º (6 V)
Running Current 500 mA – 900mA
Stall Current 2.5 A (6V)
Dead band width: 5 µs
Stable and shock proof double ball bearing design
Temperature range: 0 ºC – 55ºC
This servo motor will be connected to axels and joints of hand and it is powerful so it will allow to lift heavy objects easily.

9) SG90 Micro-Servo motor
Tiny and lightweight with high output power. Servo can rotate approximately 180 degrees (90 in each direction), and works just like the standard kinds but smaller. You can use any servo code, hardware or library to control these servos. Good for beginners who want to make stuff move without building a motor controller with feedback & gear box, especially since it will fit in small places. It comes with a 3 horns (arms) and hardware.

Specifications
Weight: 9 g
Dimension: 22.2 x 11.8 x 31 mm approx.

Stall torque: 1.8 kgf·cm

Operating voltage: 4.8 V (~5V)
Operating speed: 0.1s/60 degree
Dead band width: 10 µs
Temperature range: 0 ºC – 55 ºC
10) Jumper Wire
A jump wire (also known as jumper, jumper wire, jumper cable, DuPont wire, or DuPont cable – named for one manufacturer of them) is an electrical wire, or group of them in a cable, with a connector or pin at each end (or sometimes without them – simply “tinned”), which is normally used to interconnect the components of a breadboard or other prototype or test circuit, internally or with other equipment or components, without soldering

Individual jump wires are fitted by inserting their “end connectors” into the slots provided in a breadboard, the header connector of a circuit board, or a piece of test equipment.

11) 3d Printer Filament coil

3D printing filament is the thermoplastic feedstock for fused deposition modeling 3D printers. There are many types of filament available with different properties, requiring different temperatures to print. Filament is available in two standard diameters; 1.75 and 2.85 mm/3 mm
5. Design engineering canvas
1.AEIOU summary

Environment: Here the environment where the bionic arm can be used is specified.

Interaction: Here the list of people who could be the user and would be willing to get the benefit of technology is stated.

Objects: The objects that would be available in the product are listed like controller, controlling glove, bionic arm etc.

Activities: Here the activities for which the bionic arm is most suitable for are stated and could benefit the organizations.

Users: There could be many users for this product like engineer, researcher, industrialist, doctors, bomb squad etc.

2. Ideation Canvas

In the ideation canvas the situation context and location where the bionic arm could be used is defined besides the people who would be benefited. The bionic arm is use in location which is beyond reach of human and is dangerous for human.

Further, the solutions provided by bionic arm are listed they are; using bionic arm could save time and efficiency of the work is increased. Also it gives precision work.

3. Empathy mapping

In empathy mapping the stakeholders who would be directly connected to the product are given. Who could be engineering student, government agency, dealers and private organizations.

Then the story is boarded based on experiences and examples of real life problems that people faces and how the use of bionic arm could improve their life and may make them happy.

4. Product Development canvas

Product Experience: Here the experience of the user is stated after they were told about the bionic arm. The arm would be easy to use and also cost efficient.

Product functions and features: In this part the features of product are listed. The bionic arm will move according to gesture of human arm. But the biggest innovation is that the arm will capture the movement of human arm and can perform it in iteration.

Components: Major components used to make bionic arm are; controller, flex sensor, accelerometer, 3D printed robotic arm, and servo motors.
6. Applications and future use
Bionic Arm is going to improve human life in many ways and some of them are as follow.

• Improving quality of work for employees
• Increasing production output rates
• Improving product quality and consistency
• Increasing flexibility in product manufacturing
• Reducing operating costs
It is becoming possible to apply Bionic Arm to tasks that cannot easily be automated and thus rely heavily on human workers. In addition, Bionic Arm work long hours and handle heavy objects without getting tired or making mistakes, leading to improved quality Analysts forecast global industrial robotics market in electronic7. References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bionicshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_armhttps://www.google.co.in/search?q=robotic+arm&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiKuOrbnvHdAhVEVisKHfs_DRgQ_AUIDigB&biw=1366&bih=667https://www.google.co.in/search?q=bionic+arm&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSt7HbnvHdAhUVXSsKHTyKAR0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1366&bih=667https://rimworldwiki.com/wiki/Bionic_arm

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