Effects of climate change in Africa
Impacts on weather pattern: Flooding ,is the most prevalent disaster in North Africa the second most common in East .central Africa and third most common West Africa.(AWDR 2006)in North Africa the (2001)disastrous flood in Northern Algeria resulted in about 800 deaths and economic loss of about 400 dollars ,in Mozambique ,the (200)flood caused 800 deaths ,affected almost two million people of which about one million needed food .329,000 people were displaced and agricultural production land was destroyed (AWDR 2006)Drought between July (2012),a severe drought affected the entire East Africa region and was said to be worse drought ever in 60 year.
Impacts on water supply and quality: Entire economy suffer when the water levels of Africa huge rivers drop. Ghana, for example has become totally reliant on the hydro-electric output of the Akosombo dam on the river Volta .Mali is dependent on the river Niger for food ,water and transport .However, great stretches of river is now facing environmental devastation as a result of pollution .In Nigeria half-the population has no access to clean water.
Impact on Agriculture and food: Across Africa the landscape is changing, drought , heat stress sand flooding have led to reduction in crop yields and livestock productivity, due to rainfall, which is below average. East Africa is facing the worst food crisis in the 21 centaury according to Oxfam (2010, 2011), 12 million people in Kenya and Somalia, Ethiopia are in dire need of water.
Impact on human health :Climate sensitive to diseases and health impacts can be high in poor countries that have minimal resources to treat and prevent illness .Frequent and severe heat stress liked to sustained increased in temperature ,the reduction in air quality that often accompanied a heat wave lead to breathing problems worsen respiratory diseases.
CHAD AS A CASE STUDY
Climate change is happening all over the world, including in Africa. Africa has always been associated with droughts and high temperatures, but the situation has become much more serious today. The average temperature in Africa has increased by more than 1 degree Celsius over the last 40 years.
Some parts of the continent already have huge problems in the area of agriculture and water supply, which is the case of the Lake Chad region.in 1998, the climate change country study group identified countries that are most affected by global warming, among which chad. Estimating the impact of climate change in chad .only in agriculture and fisheries supposes that the country annually loses 1 to 6% of GDP (Jones and Thorton, 2009).
According to the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), Africa is one of the worst victim of climate change since the 1970s ; affected and experiencing various phenomena such as:
• Increasing of temperature ,particularly in the Sahel and southern Africa
• Reduction of precipitation
• Increasing in cyclonic activities
Lake Chad basin
Since 2009 ,the region of the lake chad is regularly the target of the book haram ;terrorist group.in north and eastern Nigeria ,in the diffa region of Niger ,northern region of Cameroon and the eastern part of chad ,millions of people are displaced .massacred ,malnourished and sick.
More than 10 million people need humanitarian assistance and many international organization intervene in that region to help women and children, who are forgotten victims of an ongoing conflict ( LCBC,2015).
The Lake Chad is located in a Sahel region and shares between four states, Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger and chad. Conflicts had erupted between farmers from northern Nigeria, predominantly Muslim and the farmers and fishers predominantly Christians living around the lake. Activities in the Lake Chad basin are much more agriculture and fishing, but since the drying of the lake, many fishermen become farmers cause of the reduction of availability of fish in water.
The Lake Chad was one of the largest lake in Africa, but now the one fifth of that vast expanses serve as fertile land to agriculture. By the 1970s the area of the lake a 25000km2 and nowadays it around 3000km2 (Ms Zuma, 2015).
The migrations of peoples lead to social instability, Muslim families from the northern Nigeria who are facing famine and dominance of the native Christian people; prefer to rejoin the book haram in order to provide for their needs, in order to survive. That leads to continuous conflict in the region.
The population affected by the conflict are trying to flee for safety .they are also driven by the food shortage caused by armed conflict. Indeed, the constant insecurity generated by conflict prevents farmers, shepherds and traders from continuing their professional activity and thus offering livelihoods to local populations. These people take refuge in neighboring countries, in some of the poorest regions of the world, themselves suffering from food shortages.
The drying of the Lake Chad has generated several conflicts, except the problem of famine, migration, it has also generated border problems between the four riparian countries and causes problem on the advancement of the Sahara.
Connection of climate change to insecurity in the world.
Climate change is linked to insecurity in various aspects and angles which have a direct and indirect impact on not only the human race but also the environment.
According to Columbia University professor Marc Levy, “We are experiencing a surprising uptick in global insecurity due to inability to manage climate stress,” he said this at the Global Security Initiative, a research body in Arizona. Ongoing violence in Syria is also connected with climate change. (Levy ,2012)
A record drought in Syria from 2006 to 2010 wreaked havoc on agriculture, spurring an exodus of unemployed rural residents into urban areas and intensifying dissatisfaction with the government. Refugees fleeing conflict and violence in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and Sudan are now streaming into Europe due to climate change.
Some of those migrants are fleeing areas that are affected with bad conditions because of climate stress, and global warming is just one of many factors contributing to the recent refugee crisis. Nations grappling with climate change will be tempted to pursue policies that benefit themselves in the short term but make others worse off.
Russia banned grain exports due to heat wave in 2010, benefiting domestic consumers. Despite the benefit, the conditions caused a supply crunch, rising prices and hunger in other regions.
Countries are buying up long-term access to farmland in sub-Saharan Africa. It’s good for their food security, but it’s creating problems for African consumers and small landholders.
Climate change has also cause additional psychological and emotional stress on women, which can also lead to reduced food intake. Women family farmers generally also have about 5-10 percent less access to credit than men family farmers, leaving climate-change adaptive farming practices prohibitively expensive for women.( Sisto 2003) social norms and time constraints can make it difficult for women farmers to supplement their income off-farm, which makes them vulnerable to variations in their agricultural production.
Carrying out a research on climate change, it is vivid and clear that on the impacts that have been brought about by climate change.
Despite the fact that After successfully most of the said impacts are negative, as states, if we all come together to work against this problem ahead of us, it is very much possible to solve it.
Different measures have been established to help curb this challenge. With the inter-governmental organizations such as the UN working hand in hand with states, the problems climate change has brought about are currently being controlled by certain measures that have been established.
Developing states in Africa could be the most affected by climate change and the impacts it has brought about. High levels of industrialization have been seen to be the main cause of negative impacts such as global warming.
If climate change is well taken care of and controlled, in the next 50 years, the world will be a very comfortable place for the generations to come. On the other hand if not much is done, the generations to come will suffer in a number of ways.
It is very difficult to predict the future effects of climate change. As human beings, we will be the most affected and this is why we have no choice but to come up with ways to curb this problem. A few years from today, we are not sure the extent of climate change precisely or how resilient our society will be to the impacts of that result.
These are several means that certain organisations as well as states have come up with to control climate change:
Adaptation is one of the ways this great phenomenon can be dealt with in the long-term. In this way, people are able to learn how to deal with climate change by planning, building resilience and improving society’s capacity to recover from climate impacts. Regulations can promote adaptation by mandating practices that can decrease vulnerability for example, improved land-use planning could help keep people away from flood-prone areas, and stronger building codes could help reduce the impact of extreme events.
Moving closer to work places or school is a very efficient way to curb climate change from rapidly increasing. This is due to the fact that climate change occurs due to greenhouse gases being produced by means of transportation such as cars, buses as well as trains. By being closer to work places, people have the alternative of walking, cycling or any other transport that does not require anything other than human energy.
Greenhouse gas emissions is one of the greatest challenges to climate change and one cause is use of non-renewable energy sources. If this is reduced by using renewable sources of energy such as solar power, wind power and others such as geothermal power, it will really save the environment and reduce rapid climate change.