“E-GOVERNANCE in india

“E-GOVERNANCE in india: The Transformation for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT”
Submitted
By
DR. DRISHTI B. JOSHIASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENTDEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, FACULTY OF COMMERCE
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY OF BARODA, VADODARA (GUJARAT) 390 002
E-mail:[email protected] 9376223911
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E-GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: THE TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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ABSTRACT
The word ‘Governance’ refers to safeguarding the legal rights of all the citizens in the context of ensuring equitable access to public services and extending the benefits of the economic growth to all, thereby, ensuring transparency, accountability and speedy response of government in its dealings. The alphabet ‘e’ in the word ‘e-Governance’ stands for ‘electronic’. Hence, e-Governance refers to the carrying out of the functions and achieving the results of governance by the information and communication technology (ICT), which demands the transformation of the role of the government, viz., processes, outlook, laws, rules and regulations and ways of interacting with the citizens, accompanied by the transformation of the government service delivery infrastructure as well as creation of general awareness among the citizens about the e-Governance. Undoubtedly, information and communication technology applications enable efficient and speedy storing and retrieval of data, and, simultaneous processing and transmission of the information and data in comparison to the earlier manual systems. Consequently, the government can take decisions speedily, expeditiously and judiciously, as well as, can broaden its purview of delivering the services, both, geographically and demographically to the general public.

An attempt has been, therefore, made in this paper to conceptualize the concept of e-Governance and importance of e-Governance in changing India for the sustainable development. The author has also offered the brief review of e-Governance initiatives worldwide, as well as, e-Governance initiatives in India in brief, followed by the broad general review of literature on the chosen theme. Finally, at the end, the author has put forward on the basis of review of literature various challenges and opportunities for the successful implementation of e-Governance in India for sustainable development, along with the concluding remarks.
Key Words: E-Governance and Sustainable Development.

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Dr. Drishti B. Joshi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Commerce and Business Management, Faculty of Commerce, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara.
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E-GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: THE TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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PROLOGUE:
The word ‘Governance’ refers to safeguarding the legal rights of all the citizens in the context of ensuring equitable access to public services and extending the benefits of the economic growth to all, thereby, ensuring the transparency, accountability and speedy response of government in its dealings. The alphabet ‘e’ in the word ‘e-Governance’ stands for ‘electronic’. Hence, e-Governance refers to the carrying out of the functions and achieving the results of governance by application of information and communication technology (ICT), which demands the transformation of the role of the government, viz., processes, outlook, laws, rules and regulations and ways of interacting with the citizens. It would also demand the sound infrastructure as well as creation of general awareness among the citizens about the e-Governance. Undoubtedly, information and communication technology applications enable efficient and speedy storing and retrieval of data, as well as, simultaneous processing and transmission of the information and data in comparison to the earlier manual systems.
Consequently, the government can take decisions speedily, expeditiously and judiciously, as well as, can broaden its purview of delivering the services, both, geographically and demographically to the general public (E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues: http://www.insightsonindia.com). Sustainable development refers to the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs (http://www.iisd.org /topic/sustainable-development).
The journey of the government from governance to e-governance along with sustainable development of the country has been reviewed and reported in this paper.
OBJECTIVES:
The researcher has made an attempt in this paper to conceptualize the concept of e-Governance and importance of e-Governance in changing India for the sustainable development. The author has also offered the brief review of e-Governance initiatives worldwide, as well as, has reviewed e-Governance initiatives in India in brief, followed by the broad general review of literature on the chosen theme.
Finally, at the end, the author has put forward, on the basis of review of literature, various challenges and opportunities for the successful implementation of e-Governance in India for sustainable development, along with the concluding remarks.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
As the research paper is of conceptual and review nature, the researcher has applied exploratory research design by using varied secondary data availed from the secondary data sources. On the basis of the secondary data and review, the researcher has reported on various opportunities and challenges for implementation and success of e-governance for sustainable development in India.
REVIEW OF E-GOVERNANCE INITIATIVES WORLDWIDE:
The success and implementation of e-governance depends on the technological set up, e-literacy, computer skills, and many more aspects. Hence, its success is unhinged amongst the countries of the world. However, the Unites States, European Union, and Asia stand amongst the top three ranking in terms of e-Governance development, consecutively. There exists an extensive framework of G2C technology in the United States that enables their citizens the accessibility of Government information and services through their official website i.e., Benefits.Gov.
The Federal Government of US also operates through the various government departments, namely, the Department of Transportation, Department of Public Safety, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Department of Education, and others. The European countries stood at the second position, with the aim to provide public information and increasing accessibility to the basic public services to the customers, simplification of online procedures and promoting digital signatures through the initiative of eEurope in the year 1999. While, Asia stands at third position, with varied G2C applications of its countries, namely, eCitizen Portal of Singapore, Home Tax Service of South Korea, online motor vehicle services system of Taiwan. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-governance)
IMPORTANCE OF E-GOVERNANCE IN INDIA:
In the search of the countries for the corruption free government, e-governance offers itself as the solution as it is the two-way communication protocol. Its quintessence is to provide access of the services as well as ensuring the delivery of these services. E-Governance is basically operated by the governed, for the governed and of the governed, the efficacy of which can be assessed by developing the auto-response support. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-governance).
Undoubtedly the implementation of information technology in governance in India and digitalization of the government public-related information speeds the communication and minimizes to the great extent the cost of stationery involved. Hence, those digitalized Government information thereby, can be availed by the general public as and when required, limiting the concealment of the such information by the various Government departments, making them accountable for the service/information to be supplied.
Thus, E-Governance permits redeploying of the resources from back-end processing to the front line of customer service, and thereby empowers the citizens to become an important resource in making the decisions. (E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues. 2014: http://www.insightsonindia.com/2014/11/23/e-governance-india-concept-initiatives-issues/)
E-GOVERNANCE INITIATIVES IN INDIA:
The Government of India has taken the major step toward the implementation of e-governance in the year 1970, by the establishment of the Department of Electronics, followed by the establishment of National Informatics Centre (NIC) in the year 1977, and by the year 1980 most of the government offices were equipped with computers. However, the functioning of computers was limited to word processing only (Puneet Kumar, Dharminder Kumar and Narendra Kumar, 2014). In India, the driving force for e-Governance was created in the year 1987, with the launch of The National Satellite-based Computer Network (NICNET). By the year 1990, NICNET was extended to all district headquarters via the State capitals. For achieving this target, the District Information System of the National Informatics Centre (DISNIC) program was launched under which all the district offices in India were computerized, by offering free hardware and software to the State Governments. Since then, with the continuous computerization, tele-connectivity and internet connectivity has resulted into large number of e-Governance initiatives, both at the Union and State levels (E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues. 2014: http://www.insightsonindia.com). A step forward was laid in this transformation in the year 2000, with the establishment of the Ministry of Information Technology by the Government of India and identification of 12-points minimum agenda for e-Governance.
Finally, in the year 2006, the Government of India has launched National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) with various Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) to automate vital routine tasks (Puneet Kumar, Dharminder Kumar and Narendra Kumar, 2014).
Moreover, in order to integrate government with its citizens, the Government of India has launched the Digital India program on 1st July 2015 which targets to offer various government services to the people on the IT platforms. This will require embracing of the key information technologies across the country which will impel the growth in India’s Gross Domestic Product by US $ 550 Billion to US $ 1 Trillion by the year 2025, under the credit of Digital India Programme. (http://www.ibef.org/industry/)
According to an administrative reforms commission report e-Governance initiatives implemented in the last 10 to 15 years can be categorized in varied forms, which reviewed in brief below:
Government to Citizen (G2C) initiative extends the reach of the governance for the major impact on the citizens, through the various projects, namely, Computerization of Land Records (Department of Land Resources, Government of India); Bhoomi Project: Online Delivery of Land Records; Gyandoot; Lokvani Project;  e-Mitra Project; Project FRIENDS; eSeva; Revenue Administration through Computerized Energy (RACE) Billing Project; Admission to Professional Colleges – Common Entrance Test (CET) etc.

Government to Business (G2B) initiatives involves the activities such as, registrations, licenses and exchange of information between government and business under e-Governance with the objective to complement the conducive legal environment to the business, apart from the advantage of speedy processes and availing of the relevant information, through the projects, namely, e-Procurement Project, e-Procurement, MCA 21, etc.
However, Government to Government (G2G) initiatives focuses on comprehensive processing of information facilitating the decision making to the government system, through the projects such as, Khajane Project in Karnataka, SmartGov (Andhra Pradesh), etc.

Apart from these, there are various projects which are currently operational or are in the pipeline in the Digital India initiative which are, namely, MyGov.in; Implemenation of biometric attendance system based on the Aadhaar Card in the central government offices in Delhi; Digital Locker; JeevanPramaan Portal; e-Greetings portal; www.ebasta.in, and, eSAMPARK (http://www.thehansindia.com/).

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
Governance for sustainability presents an enormous but unavoidable challenge. The challenge is to achieve sufficient integration of understanding, direction and action to achieve the desired change through E-governance for achieving goal of sustainable development. (Rene Kemp, 2005).
Anil Moonga (2008) has verified the importance of e-governance and benefits thereby availed by the people of India, by analyzing the selected experiences at the local, state and federal levels of government in India. N. S. Kalsi, Ravi Kiran and S. C. Vaidya (2009) have discussed the need for transformation to e-governance from the traditional governance model. They have also emphasized on the factors influencing the good governance, with special focus on the e-government initiatives which has a direct impact on the citizens and in which the citizens avail advantage through direct transactions with the governmental services. Antonio Cordella and Jakob Hesse (2010) have specifically discussed the Akshaya e-Government project, by applying the general concepts borrowed from the actor network theory which discusses the ongoing negotiation shaping the e-Government projects. The authors aimed to provide an insight about the importance of the dynamic interactions that influence the impact of ICT on government policies. They have reported that, the nature of service delivered and the socio-economic development resulting out of the project are affected by the negotiation among the different actors involved in the project as well as the consequent changes as experienced by the project itself. The authors have suggested to study e-Government in its making and not as results of planned action and sequential evolutionary phases.

Subhash C. Bhatnagar and Nupur Singh (2010) have explained an assessment methodology for analyzing the investments in e-government and for the establishment of performance benchmark for the future projects, by the developing countries, from the context of India. The author has offered a framework by identifying the key stakeholders, the criteria for measuring the impact and a methodology of measurement. The author has measured client value on the basis of cost to the client of accessing services and perception by the client of quality of service and governance, and had also studied in the limited context, the “nancial costbene” influence on the agency implementing the projects. The authors have presented the assessment result from eight e-government projects by estimating the difference between client ratings of computerized and (earlier) manual systems, and found that the clients has expressed overwhelming preference for computerized service delivery, with reports of fewer journeys, less waiting time, and some reduction in corruption (marginal in places). On the basis on the findings, it was found that the improvements can be made by the application of ICTs in delivering the government services and greater attention should be laid on the processing of the reforms in the designing of the e-government projects.
Geoff Walsham (2010) has argued in the ICT applications for the context of providing broader developmental benefits to all Indian citizens by collecting secondary data from academic articles with a focus on India. The author has analyzed the contribution of ICTs towards the achievement of specific development goals and found that of many ICT-based initiatives undertaken over the last decade, some does has the positive effects, pointing that the beneficiaries were not the poor and the most advantaged groups most of the time. The author has highlighted that in India, in order to gauge the impact of ICT initiatives, there exist need for attitudinal and institutional change. The author has also pointed out that the ICT applications for its optimum benefits to the citizens of India, has to be integrated with the socio-technical interventions. Gopal Naik, Siddharth Joshi and K. P. Basavaraj (2010) have identified the limited range of services provided by the rural telecentres as the primary cause of their failure. The authors have suggested a three-pronged approach to increase the success of the telecentres in rural areas, viz., popularizing the use of telecasters as the public service delivery as well as public data collection by the government; providing a cluster of complete and integrated services to cater to a wider customer base which will improve value for the rural customers; and, providing information and other services to businesses with significantly large operations in rural areas.
Gopal Naik, Basavarajppa K. P., and Siddharth Joshi (2011), on the basis of the preliminary evidence, have highlighted that the designing of the rural telecentres integrated with G2C services would not only enhance sustainability of these centers, but also improve the effectiveness of the delivery of the government services and strengthen their information system, along with fostering inclusive growth and enable in bridging the digital divide. Gopal Naik (2011) has critically pointed out the failure of the rural telecentres started by the Government of India under the National e-Governance Plan, basically due to weak business model.
The author has also suggested an alternative model for rural telecentres, focusing on the e-governance services, as well as, has underlined the issues pertaining to the role of government; the viability of partnership models with the private and NGO sectors; the institutional design for rural telecentres; the services to be rendered by the centers and the likely markets for them; the location of the centers and support in the form of infrastructure and manpower; and the technology to support the institutional design.
Dr. Pardeep Mittal and Amandeep Kaur (2013) have provided an insight into the key challenges faced by the Government of India in the implementation of e-governance in India. The author has critically pointed out the negative characteristics of the Indian population, viz., low literacy level, most of the people living below poverty line, lack of awareness about the advantages of e-Governance activities and limited use of information and communication technologies.

Mohammad Kamel Alomari (2014) has offered insight into and evaluated the factors influencing the intention of the Jordanian to use e-governance and the effective functioning of the e-government in the Jordanian social community through its interaction with citizens, by collecting the data from 356 Jordanian citizens purposively through a survey from two departments, namely, the Jordanian Government’s Income and Sales Tax Department and its Driver and Vehicle Licenses Department. The author found that, trust in the internet, website design, religious beliefs, internet and computer skill confidence, word of mouth, resistance to change, perceived usefulness, relative advantage and complexity are the critical factors determining the adoption of e-governance in Jordan. The author has thereby also highlighted the importance of social cohesion in the Jordanian community.
Puneet Kumar, Dharminder Kumar and Narendra Kumar (2014) have made an attempt to assess the efforts made by Government of India in e-governance applications. The authors have further also evaluated various issues from the context of the targets of e-governance accomplished, perceptions of the people on e-governance, global perspective on the e-governance perception, and, thereby highlighted the major challenges faced in the use of e-governance applications.
K. S. Vijaya Sekhar (2015) has made an attempt to measure the sustainability of e-governance projects, by applying the six-factor model. The author has also highlighted the major challenges faced by the various e-governance models implemented by the Government of India. Kiran Preet Kaur and Dr. Sawtantar Singh Khurmi (2016) has discussed and evaluated the sustainable e-Governance Programs, usage of the information communication technology in rural areas of Punjab, along with the issues and challenges encountered, by reviewing various e-governance programs implemented by the Punjab government. The underlining issues identified by the author were, viz., local language and confidentiality of personal data as the major challenges resulting into the failure of the e-governance in India, and has emphasized on the strict initiatives to be undertaken for creating awareness by the Government.
Eng. S. M. Kundishora (http://siteresources.worldbank.org) has discussed the foundations for establishing a viable and sustainable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry. The author has also discussed the opportunities offered and challenges faced by many African countries in their efforts to participate completely in the information society and knowledge economy. The author, thereby, has discussed the critical ICT policy thrusts by focusing on ICT as a sector e-government, e-governance and the education and training sectors, inevitability of government to be e-literate, for successful implementation, management and monitoring of the ICT sector.

The author has thereby the importance of ICT as the key for the growth, development and maximum benefits, which can be optimized by establishing the right policy interventions, resource investments, appropriate networks (partnerships) and conducive environment.
Shruti D. Upadhyaya and Pawan K. Chugan (http://ssrn.com/abstract=2002673) have presented the brief review of rural e-governance, the rural ICT projects, as well as the relevant issues pertaining to the use of ICT for rural e-Governance applications. The authors have also suggested that the Public Private Partnership (PPP) approach could be more effective to achieve sustainable economic development.

E – GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
Sustainable development through e-governance particularly in the developing countries includes protection of the basic rights of the citizens and simultaneous creation of the values services which enables rise in the standard of living of the people. Sustainability in development thus, is dependent on the integration of the comprehensive public services and its offering to the citizens by the means of one-stop/one-touch simplified platforms, which also are beneficial, transparent, and, accountable.
Figure Number: 01: E-Governance for Development
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Society
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Sustainable development thus, can be considered from the purview of the societal development, environmental development and economical development (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rene_Kemp). The transformation of the governance into the e-governance in India may raise many challenges from the various fronts, which when dealt will result into the sustainable development of the country. Hence, the journey of e-governance has been referred to as an emerging trend for sustainable development. This has been discussed in the form of challenges and opportunities for e-governance for sustainable development in India.
CHALLENGES OF E-GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
An important means for sustainable development is E-Governance and there are a large number of obstacles in implementation of E-Governance in India which are as discussed below:
Economical Challenges:
The e-governance initiatives in various forms can be successful only if it reaches to each and every citizen of the country which requires assigning of the unique identification number to each and every citizen. The total population of India being 1.31 Billion, the task of assigning this unique number seems to be gigantic, although not impossible (www/internetlivestats.com/internet-users/india/). Moreover, the proportion of the people living in rural areas and those below poverty line is also large in the developing countries like India, which further questions the awareness, access and use of the e-governance services (Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Amandeep Kaur, 2013).

Social Challenges:
Generally, e-Governance applications are offered in English language. However, in India, there reside the citizens with different religions, culture, and languages.
This questions the success of the e-Governance services and also the need for developing e-Governance application in the user-friendly languages. Apart from this, there exists the low e-literacy level amongst the citizens of India, which further raises the challenge to the government for educating the people for usage of the e-Governance services. According to the Global Information Technology Report 2012, the e-Readiness rank of India is 69 with the score of 3.89 out of 10 that means the use of ICTs in India is very low. (Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Amandeep Kaur, 2013).
Challenge of integration of the e-Governance Services amongst the service providers:
Most of the e-governance services which are offered by the state or central government are not integrated due to the lack of communication between different departments of government being the major cause. Also, the information that resides within one department is perceived as to of no or very little meaning to some other department of the Government which further limits the dissemination of information at right time to right authority (Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Amandeep Kaur, 2013).

Challenges to overcome varied Technical problems:
The e-Governance applications must possess the characteristic of interoperability in order to integrate and implement the newly developed and existing application together. Interoperability is the ability of systems and organizations of different qualities to work together. Moreover, multimodal interaction provides the user with multiple modes of interfacing with a system. This will offer the accessibility of the e-Government applications by the users on different devices. Also, the e-Governance applications demands large investments, for its implementation,
operations and evolutionary maintenance tasks, as well as up-gradation of the information technology systems , which further raises the challenge of maintaining the cost/benefit ratio. (Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Amandeep Kaur, 2013, and, www.icisa.cag.gov.in)
Challenges to curb Trust, Privacy and Security Issues:
Apart from this, another critical challenge in implementing e-Governance is the privacy and security of an individual’s personal data that he/she provides to obtain government services (Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Amandeep Kaur, 2013, and, www.icisa.cag.gov.in). For successful e-Governance usage by the citizens, the element of confidence, comfort and trust on ICT application is inevitable. Moreover, care must also be taken by the Government to prevent fraudulent transactions in order to win the trust of the citizens (E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues: www.insightsonindia.com).

Digital Divide:
The resistant to change phenomenon can explain much of the hesitation that occurs on the part of constituents in moving from a paper based to a Web-based system for interacting with government which results into digital divide. Digital divide refers to the separation that exists between individuals, communities, and businesses that have access to information technology and those that do not have such access, which is influence by the social, economic, infrastructural and ethno-linguistic factors. (E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues: http://www.insightsonindia.com)
Environmental challenges:
The Government of India had visualized this problem and formulated E-waste (Management ; Handling), Rules, 2011. However, due to unawareness of the government as well as private stakeholders, the problem of e-waste management has piled up. 
About 1500 metric kilo of e-waste is generated in India per annum. As per the forecasts of United Nations, by the year 2020, the e-waste from computers and that from the discarded mobile phones would increase by 500 times and 18 times its level in the year 2007, respectively. Generation of E-waste due to digitalization is inevitable but measured should be taken to manage it properly, in order to reduce further harm to the natural resource and organisms (www.cure.org.in/e-swachh-bharat/)
Challenges pertaining to the Implementation of E-Governance Applications:
There are also number challenges from the context of implementation of e-Governance applications, such as, lack of strategic financial planning; vendor driven project implementation; lack of standardization in the projects set up by the different state agencies; absence of reverse compatibility of applications with legacy systems; gap in the procurement of IT infrastructures and building the application or digitalizing the data; lack of understanding by the departments, for the components of e-governance applications, which can be outsourced or can be carried out in-house (www.egovernance2011.wordpress.com / 2011/02/15/64/).

OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY E-GOVERNANCE: Demographics in India:
According to the projections of McKinsey Global Institute, the population of Indian cities is expected to become 40 per cent of total population of the country, i.e., from 340 Million in the year 2008 to 590 Million in the year 2030 (Health Care; Gearing Up for Health Care 3.0, 2010). According to the report of PriceWaterhouse Coopers, it is estimated that 189 Million people in India will fall in the age group category of more than 60 years of age by the year 2025 (http://www.oifc.in/sectors/healthcare). India’s population comprising of above 65 years is expected to cross the even 227 Million by the year 2050.
Moreover, the numbers of disabled people in most of the developing countries are expected to increase with the number of increase in older people (Global Health and Aging). This indicates the need for the most accessible, convenient, and 24*7 facilities of governance, which can be materialized only by e-governance.
Rising Internet User base:
The internet economy in India is estimated to attain US $ 146.72 Billion by the year 2018, contributing to about 5 per cent of gross domestic product of the country. Moreover, India is also expected to become the third largest in world in terms of the internet user base, with its internet user-base expected to reach over 400 Million by May 2016. Also, the number of social media users was found to have grown to 143 Million and the number of smartphone users had grown to 160 Million by the period April 2015 (http://www.ibef.org/industry).
Initiatives for e-Governance adoption by the Government of India:
The Government of India has also undertaken major initiatives in order promote the use of various e-governance applications may result to be turning point in from the context of sustainable development on the various fronts which are outlined below:
Announcement of the plan to increase the number of e-Seva Centres to 2,50,000 by Mr. Ravi Shankar Prasad, Minister of Communication and Information Technology.
The Human Resource Development (HRD) Ministry plans to open three Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), through public-private partnership (PPP), at Nagpur, Ranchi and Pune.
Under the Digital India programme, Government is also planning to develop five incubation centres for ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) start-ups, with at least two centres to be set up in rural areas to develop solutions for smart agriculture.
For this, India and U.S. have shown consent to make joint efforts for jointly exploring the opportunities in implementing of India’s ambitious ‘Digital India Initiative’ worth Rs 1.13 Trillion (US$ 16.58 Billion), and thereby the two sides also agreed to organize the US-India Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Working Group in India.

Also, a digital literacy programme, with the objective of training more than 6 Crores Indians by the year 2018 in order to empower them for digital inclusion has also been all set by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY). (http://www.ibef.org/industry/)
Bridging the Digital Divide and Cutting the Tech-Edges:
The Government of India is determined to digitalize the traditional governance system and transform it into the e-governance platform. The mammoth thorny task of assigning the unique identification number seems being accomplishing with Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) reaching to about 1 Billion Indians who have received their Aadhaar Card by the year 2016. About 120 Million families received even the Liquified Petroleum Gas Subsidy directly in their bank accounts in the year 2016. The voluntary use of the Aadhaar cards for varied routine public services transactions has enabled the citizens to overcome the fear of not carrying the transaction wise identity proofs, witnessing the Aadhaar Payment bridge, which is in a way an interface between banks, gas companies, UIDAI and consumers. Hence, Aadhaar Card has been projected and proven as the foundation in instilling a host of cutting-edge technologies into middle-class lives in the year 2016. (Chaitanya Mallapur, 2016)
Connecting the Unconnected:
India has strategically planned for the installation of 12 giga-watt (GW) of renewable energy by the year 2016, with the objective to attain 175 GW and generate a Million jobs by the year 2022. The 12 GW is equivalent to a third portion of entire renewable-energy capacity installed until 30th September 2015 in India, which will be practically more than double the capacity installed in the year 2015. The Renewable Energy alternatives will enable to reduce the number of Indians without electricity, which is about 300 million at present, and by the 2017, all the villages in India will be electrified. Moreover, the Government of India has also set the plans to wire 250,000 village panchayats (council areas) with broadband by December 2016. This further enables and facilitates offering as well as use of e-governance facilities across India. (Chaitanya Mallapur, 2016)
E-Swach Bharat:
According to the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar, the new Rules have incorporated the commitment of the Government of India towards the environmental governance. According to the E-Waste Management Rules, 2016, the producers of electrical and electronic goods are held responsible for the collection of e-waste and its exchange through the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Accordingly, they can have a separate Producer Responsibility Organization (PRO) who may ensure the collection of e-waste from the large consumer-base, as well as its green disposal. Apart from simplifying the process of dismantling and recycling, the role of state governments has been introduced to ensure safety, health and skill development of the workers involved in these operations. Also, there has been introduction of provision of penalty for violation of rules, which reflects the adoption of stick approach by the Ministry to control the e-waste and direct its environment friendly management. (www.delhigreens.com/2016/04/07/e-waste-management-rules-2016-notified-governmentindia/)
CONCLUDING REMARKS:
There is no single best form of governance for sustainability. The details must vary, respecting the specifics of context from case to case. Nevertheless, the deliberations on governance for sustainability so far, do point to a basic foundational outline and strategy, and there is reason to believe that we can clarify and specify much more without compromising respect for particular circumstances. Thus, e-Governance has been considered as one approach for changing the face of government in the eyes of the citizens.
As the usage of Information Technology is growing very fast, Indian government is making many efforts to provide services to its citizens through e-Governance, but still these projects are not successful in all parts of India. Unawareness in people; language; economic condition; trust, security and privacy concerns; lack of digital literacy; lack of digital infrastructure; limited broadband penetration; digital divide; lack of integration amongst the government departments; technical limitations; environmental concerns, etc, are some of the challenges that have trapped the growth and success of the e-governance services in India.
However, there are some of the emerging developments which may assist in overcoming the aforesaid challenges and help reap the actual success of e-governance applications, and thereby attain sustainable development. The facts pertaining to the overall composition of the population of the country; the rising number of the internet users; the proactive and positive approach of the Government; the speedy coverage of the population under the unique identification number; efforts to narrow the digital gap; infrastructural developments, as well as, strict measures for controlling the adverse effects of the e-governance applications, has certainly indicated to the citizen of India, about the transforming India into Digital India. Moreover, it seems that the citizens of India are all set to offer themselves voluntarily to the Government to be mould as required for making the ambitious dream of transformation for sustainable development through e-Governance in India.
SELECTED REFERENCES:
Anil Monga. 2008. E-government in India: Opportunities and challenges. JOAAG, Vol. 3. No. 2. http://joaag.com/uploads/5_Monga2EGov3_2_.pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Antonio Cordella and Jakob Hesse. 2010. E-Government in the Making: Socio-Economic Development in the Akshaya Project. European Conference on Information Systems 2010, 6th-9th June 2010, University of Pretoria. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/43669/1/E-government%20in%20the%20making(lsero).pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Chaitanya Mallapur,, 2016; 4 Things That Could Change India In 2016; http://www.indiaspend.com/cover-story/4-things-that-could-change-india-in-2016-2016. Accessed: December 3rd, 2016
Dr. Pardeep Mittal and Amandeep Kaur. 2013. E-Governance – A Challenge for India. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering ; Technology (IJARCET). Vol. 2, Issue 3. Available at: http://egovstandards.gov.in/sites/default/files/IJARCET-VOL-2-ISSUE-3-1196-1199_1.pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Dr. Pardeep Mittal, Amandeep Kaur. (2013). E-Governance – A challenge for India. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering ; Technology (IJARCET, ISSN: 2278 – 1323) 2(3), pp. 1199-1196.

E Governance Initiatives in India;   Feb 01, 2016; THE HANS INDIA; http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/Young-Hans/2016-02-01/E-Governance-Initiatives-in-India/204109; Accessed: December 3rd, 2016.

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Eng. S M Kundishora. The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Enhancing Local Economic Development and Poverty Reduction. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CMUDLP/Resources/Role_ICT_paper.pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

e-Swachh Bharat for Digital India; www.cure.org.in/e-swachh-bharat/; Accessed: December 3rd, 2016.

Geoff Walsham. 2010. ICTS for the Broader Development of India: An Analysis of the Literature. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries. Vol. 41. No. 4. PP. 1-20. http://144.214.55.140/ojs2/index.php/ejisdc/article/view/665/317. Accessed October 1st, 2016.

Gopal Naik, Basavarajppa K. P., and Siddharth Joshi. 2011. Financial Sustainability of E-Governance Embedded Rural Telecentres (EGERT) in India. WORKING PAPER NO: 352. Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. https://www.iimb.ernet.in/research/sites/default/files/WP%20No.%20352.pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Gopal Naik, Siddharth Joshi and K. P. Basavaraj. 2010. Making E-Governance Centers Financially Sustainable in Rural India: A Conceptual Design for Action Research. WORKING PAPER NO: 317. Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. Available at: https://www.iimb.ernet.in/research/sites/default/files/Making%20ICT%20Sustainable%20for%20Rural%20Poor%20A%20Pilot%20Initiative%20WP%20317%20.pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Gopal Naik. 2011. Designing a sustainable business model for e-governance embedded rural telecentres (EGERT) in India. IIMB Management Review (2011) 23, 110-121. Available at: doi:10.1016/j.iimb.2011.04.001. Accessed: October 1st, 2016
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https://egovernance2011.wordpress.com/2011/02/15/64/. Accessed: October 10th, 2016.

K. S. Vijaya Sekhar. 2015. Evaluation of Sustainability in E-Governance Projects. IBMRD’s Journal of Management and Research, Print ISSN: 2277-7830, Online ISSN: 2348-5922. Volume-4, Issue-1. Available at: https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=26&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj-ms_EzLjPAhUJupQKHTpMBBU4FBAWCEEwBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibmrdjournal.com%2Findex.php%2Fibmrd%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F60338%2F47221&usg=AFQjCNFQpw_iy6kUnhzxL83Jg809Zq76SA&sig2=bH3y9eHebwL6vGN_kpXUcg&bvm=bv.134495766,d.dGo. Accessed: October 01, 2016.

Kiran Preet Kaur and Dr. Sawtantar Singh Khurmi. 2016. Implementation of E-Governance in India: Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of Computer Science and Technology. Vol. 7, Issue 1. Available at: http://www.ijcst.com/vol71acsect/23-kiran-preet-kaur.pdf. Accessed: September 15, 2016
Mohammad Kamel Alomari. 2014. Discovering Citizens Reaction towards e-Government: Factors in e-Government Adoption. Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management. Vol. 11, No. 1, PP. 05-20. Available at: http://www.jistem.fea.usp.br/index.php/jistem/article/view/10.4301%252FS1807-17752014000100001/454. Accessed: September 15, 2016.

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Puneet Kumar, Dharminder Kumar and Narendra Kumar. 2014. E-Governance in India: Definitions, Challenges and Solutions. International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 101– No.16, September 2014. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1411/1411.1876.pdf. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Rene Kemp .2005. Governance for sustainable development: moving from theory to practice. International Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 8, Nos. 1/2, PP. 12-30; Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rene_Kemp/publication/5107694_Governance_for_sustainable_development_moving_from_theory_to_practice_Int_J_Sustainable_Development_812_12- 0/links/0a85e53 4ce87 ec1d2c000000.pdf. Accessed: October 10th, 2016.

Shruti D. Upadhyaya1 and Pawan K. Chugan. Sustainable Rural Development through ICT & e-Governance in India. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2002673. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

Subhash C. Bhatnagar and Nupur Singh. 2010. Assessing the Impact of E-Government: A Study of Projects in India. Information Technologies & International Development. Volume 6, Number 2. 2010, 109–127; Available at: http://itidjournal.org/itid/article/viewFile/523/231. Accessed: October 1st, 2016.

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www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-governance; Accessed: December 3rd, 2016.

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www.icisa.cag.gov.in; Accessed: September 15th, 2016.

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