DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED DATABASE FOR NIGERIA PRISON SYSTEM USING BIOMETRICS FEATURES

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED DATABASE FOR NIGERIA PRISON SYSTEM USING BIOMETRICS FEATURES
(A CASE STUDY OF OKERE PRISON WARRI, DELTA STATE)
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Computer today is considered as one of the vital toot in providing practical solution to the real world problem. The trend in technology has brought about using information technology in tackling security and also providing automation in solving real world problem. One of such benefits includes; storage and retrieval of data, increase in the speed of data processing, increase in the speed of work done by a fewer persons. It also provides us a good facility to work with machine that provides a good and quality result. In this modern world it is almost importance to cater for such advancement (Oye and Ibrahim, 2013).
Prison in Nigeria, individual or offender In a prison individuals are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the law of the state in the form of punishment, they are confirmed in a particular place that are segregated from the outside world, kept in a constant monitoring and surveillance, their personal belonging are taking away from them and offender confirmed to institution dress. The inmates are kept in a continuous custody for a long period of time (Ajayi, 2012)
Managing the inmate information / visitor was always difficult since this is as a result of information being kept using pen and paper, this make the whole process cumbersome and time consuming as a result some information gets missing and damage. So, related record and their computerization in order to speed up the processing of information need of courts and various other national agencies. As the demand for technology in high, there comes a need for developed an integrated database that store the records or information of inmate’s data to enhance information exchange and data sharing to the users.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria prison management system is still at it early stage and follows the elementary processes. Criminals’ information/records are managed in a manual files in Nigeria prison system. The conventional way of keeping record system is in pen and paper and those records are kept in the shelves where information processing are tedious and time consuming with accompanying bugs and data loss. In Nigeria prison system information retrieval is difficulty this is as a result of information or record of inmates is not store in a central location. In addition, natural hazard like wet season, which result in damages of papers and books, even human being can contribute to such storage hazard. Information about an inmate are scattered around various prison across the nation. There is inadequate security, because inmate’s record kept manually on papers and books are not safe in terms of confidentiality. This makes the system very slow, cumbersome, inadequate and inefficient means storing information which greatly hinder the flow of vital information as a result making information processing time consuming.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study to design and implement an integrated database Prison Management System (PMS) in Nigeria prisons, using biometric features, this will be achieved through the following objectives:
To analyzed the strength and weakness of the existing system used by Nigeria prisons.

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Proposed a new system for overcoming the challenges of existing system.

Design and implement the proposed system
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The complete implementation of an integrated database management system in Nigeria prison will enable relevant authority to carefully retrieved data, analyzed and make decision, it will reduce delay in process inmate jail terms, decision by the law court can be made easily. Data store in one location can easily be retrieved and use to make relevant decision in other place when there is a centralized database. Also in case of inmate transfer from prison to another, information relating that inmate will be access easily in the new location.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this research is to have an integrated database Prison Management System (PMS), using biometric features. The developed system covers prisoner’s information such as picture, biometric features such as finger print, conviction, offence, visitors, address, jail term record etc.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
This research is associated with some constraints such as time, money and data collection method. Also, rigidity of data collection method also has the limitation of this research which results to restricting the information obtained. In addition, finance is another major constrain which impedes a wider consultations and research on the project. Some materials may have some cost implications which may be above the budgeted money for the research work.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Prison is defined as a process or rule of society to inflict a penalty on individual who committed an offence and the place in a confirm environment. It is also a place in where an individual are restricted from freedom and restrain from personal belonging. In criminal law it can also be defines as an offence that forbids the commission or omission of certain acts in a way to protect public property from what is against the law and brings enough guidance against corruption of the state (Paul, 2013).
Prison is an institution where information about inmate and warders are kept and prisoners are confirmed to one location and then restricted from outside world. Once an inmate is confirm by the prison walls, he or she becomes subject to the operation and function of the surrounding or the institution (Goldsmith, 2012).

2.2 INFORMATION SYSTEM
Information system is the process of recording, analyzing and processing of data for making decision. Also the term information system (or computer based information system) is the process of applying particular application software that is used to records data in a computer system and developed a computerized system for the organization. The disciplines of business process modeling describe the business processes supported by reformation system which is in the same way with the Prison Information System. Information system, is one that accept input from it surrounding, process those data (Bently, 2013).

2.3 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
A database is an ordered collection of data that are store in the form of rows and columns. Database management systems (DBMS) is a software that is use to access and manage data in the database, using some special command. A general-purpose database management system (DBMS) is a software system developed to allow the creation, definition, querying, update, and administration of databases.
Oye and Ibrahim, (2015) define a database as a collection of related data of fact and any arrange system of information storage and retrieval. He pointed out the different properties associated with database which include data sharing, data integrity, data security, data abstraction and data independence. They also discussed database management system as an organized set of facilities for accessing and maintaining one or more database or series of database and through which all interactions take place with the database. Which also mention that DBMS fall into four main group which are: data definition, data maintenance, data retrieval and data control.Dunlop and Kling (1991), in the early 1990s, said that computing and telecommunications accounted for half of the capital investments made by private firms. However, paper (1980); Feigenbaum and McCorduck (1983) and Yourdon (1986) stated that the important fervent advocates of computerization have argued that the actual pace of computerization in schools, factories and homes is very slow. King (1986), emphasize on labour-market pragmatism that we seen as “vocational matching”. In this regard, people will require computer skills, such as computer programming to compete in future labour markets and to contribute highly in an automated society.
Kling (1986), recommend that computer- based education enhance a utopian image of computer- using institution as places where students learn in a cheerful, cooperative setting and where every instructor can be supportive, enthusiastic mentors.
Hence, an automated database management system is usually a system, which is implemented with a computer to achieve the overall efficiency and desired objectives.
Russell, M. (1987) consider extensively on the importance for the use of computers on such database system. According to David (2003), the heart of any information system is a database which is a collection of related information grouped together as a single item. It can also be apply to the ways in which information is organized, analyzed, stored and used manually. Database management systems (DBMS) have become a standard tool for protecting the computer user from details of secondary storage management. They are developed to enhance the productivity of application programmers and to improved data access by novice computer end users. There have been various database models. Whichever type model or database management system is adopted, the use of a central database management system has a number of merits and some demerits compared to the commonly used special purpose data files. A data file made up of a set of records organized and defined for a single application system. Relational information between items in a record or between records is not clearly described or available to other application systems. For instance, a file of project activity durations and scheduled times might be gathered and manipulated by a project scheduling system. This data file would not necessarily be available to the accounting system or to corporate planners.
A centralized DBM has several merits over such stand-alone systems:
Reduced redundancy important planning can allow duplicate or like data stored in different files for various applications to be combined and stored exactly once.
Improved availability information may be made available to any application program through the use of the Database Management System (DBM)
Reduced inconsistency if the same data is stored in different place, then updating in one place and not everywhere can result to inconsistencies in the database.
Enforced data security authorization to use information can be centralized.
2.4 Empirical Review of Prison System
Agunbiade, (2010) pointed out the challenges face in Nigeria prison such as prisoner health, the prison condition are far from being human and is not yet a profitable project in the country. Some of these challenges include communicable disease in prison such as tuberculosis as well as staff of prison system.
2.4.1 Challenges and Reforms in the Nigerian Prisons System
Prisons system in the country have been know with some problem in Nigeria prison, many studies have shown some of the inadequacy and inefficiency record in Nigeria prison and beyond. In many aspects individual are confirmed to a specific location and the condition of the prison are so cumbersome. It is important that the prisons system in Nigeria is confronted with the challenges of destroying the individual members of the society, which negates the need of imprisonment, amounting to human development wastage in the national calculus. It is clear that various prisons in Nigeria are saddled with the challenges of turning out maladjusted goal (Obioha, 2011).

In this era, computer is among the vital tools individual use. It has assisted them in storing data which used to be in pen and papers. the significance of computer is that it enhances storage and retrieval of information so quickly that it has reduces information and work complexity. The rise in the speed of work has enabled us to do many things with less resource. A lots of man power has been used to ensure the safety of data or information. A Prison environment is a place in where individual are physically restrained and usually isolated of a range of human freedom. Prisons are traditional institutions, which form part of the criminal justice system of a country, such that imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime. In popular parlance of many countries, the term Jail (goal) is considered similar with Prison (Oye and Ibrahim, 2015).

Shajobi-Ibikunle, (2014) locate the in tools of handling a criminal befor the colonial rule in Nigeria to the new method of facilities and operations in Nigerian prisons. It is critical to point out the major issues face in the pre-colonial prison system such as populated prison, inadequate rehabilitation and aftercare provisions. It suggest greater use of fines by courts; restitution, mediation, probation and community service as non-custodial measures for minor and non-violent criminals.
2.5 Prison Identification Technology Research Based On Iris Image Recognition
Hanfei and Jiang, (2015) proposed a prison system identification system using iris image recognition to meet in real-time identification. The different techniques used are iris pre-processing where the original image is used to get the pre-processing image and then the canny edge detection of the pre-processing are obtained. The second method used is iris localization to determine the boundary, the iris template matching method to calculate the degree of similarity between the input test image and training image from database.

2.6 Development of Criminals Record Information System
Daniel and Dogo, (2011) developed an automated system that will improved the storing of data for future use. It does not allow offender to escape the authority. And it provides an easy way for the authorities to apprehend and convict criminals easily. Because of the high level of illiteracy that exist among the citizen, crime have increased dramatically as a result information regarding criminals are recorded and keep for future use to make judgment by relevant authority (James, 2010).
Record Management system for police are use for data capturing ability, should have a RMS where reported crimes, where they were committed, and involving who, amongst other information, will be recorded and stored regularly in a database. “The police don’t have any crime records management system. They keep their records on hard copy and this doesn’t help their efficiency. The RMS will enable the police to have efficient and up-to-date statistics to draw analysis from, on information of a case, the year a crime was committed, who investigated it, etc.” (Peter, 2010).2.7 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PRISONER AND HEALTH CARE STAFF
Majority of the developing countries including Nigeria, the condition of the prison unhealthy for human living and the health of the inmates are view as a favorable social project. This is often displayed in the many forms of social interactions obtainable among inmates, prison staff and the society at large. Over the past years prisons in Nigeria have been in deplorable state with rise in disease burden among prisoners. The worrisome part is not the governments’ interest to join the global drive towards realizing ways to health care service, but the slowness in attitude in correcting the health demands of inmates; yet prison health remains paramount. Therefore, a sociological discourse of health in Nigeria prison within the area of the changing of social organization on prison health as well as finding out plausible strategy through which optimum prison health in Nigeria could be realized (Agunbiade, 2010).

All members of health provider who render service in prisons will often know that their original assignment to any inmates who is their client or patient is clinical. This is listed in the case of the United Nations (1982) Principles of Medical Ethics important to the Role of Health Personnel, especially Physicians, in the shielding of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other wicked, the unfair treatment or, refer Health personnel, particularly physicians, charged with the health care of inmates and those awaiting detention have a duty to provide them with care of their physical and mental health and treatment of disease of the same quality and standard as is affordable to those who are not imprisoned or in detention. The International Council of Prison Medical Services confirmed this principle when it agreed on the Oath of Athens (Prison Health Care Practitioners, 1979)
2.7.1 ACCESSIBILITY
Country like the United States, the essential basic rule governing access to a healthcare record imposed that only the inmates and the health-care provider directly associated with in delivering health-care have the right to view record. The inmates may also grant consent for any person or entity to analyze the record. The full rules concerning access and security for medical data are not set forth under the rules of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability act (HIPAA). The guard lines become more difficulty in vital situations (Robson and Baek, 2009).

2.7.2 CAPACITY
When an inmate has no ability to make decisions concerning his or her own care, a legal guardian is assigned. Legal guardians have the power to access the medical record in order to make medical decisions on the Prisoner’s behalf (Rollins, 2006).
2.7.3 MEDICAL EMERGENCY
In the case of emergency involving non-communicative inmates, consent to access medical records is assumed otherwise written documentation has been previously drafted (such as an advance directive).

2.7.4 RESEARCH, AUDITING AND EVALUATION
Everyone who is participating in medical health care research, organized audits evaluation has link to the medical health information.
2.8COMPUTERIZATION OF PRISON SYSTEMS
Prison systems could be automated just like other manual systems. This process would best be done using the water fall model software development life cycle. The following sections discuss the stages in such development.
The Iterative Waterfall Model that is showed in Figure 2.1 is the approach that has been used to implement the Structured System Analysis and Design Method (SSADM). This model has been choosing because when a stage is not successful, previous stages will often require revision. The phases involved in the SSADM are:
2.8.1 PLANNING
At this phase, all the requirements are gathered by using interview method and observation methods. The information requirements details are used to agree the need with clients. In order to sure that it is simply understood, it should not be overly formal or highly encoded.
Fig 2.1 Water Fall Model (Source: http://blog.hydro4ge.com)
2.8.2 ANALYSIS
Data analysis started with the objective of data requirements and then resulted to conceptual data model. The purpose of analysis is to get a detailed analysis of the data that will match client’s needs or demand so that both the high and low level properties of information and their application are dealt with. This consist properties such as the possible range of values that can be allow for attributes. The conceptual data architecture provides a shared, formal representation of what is being communicated between clients and programmer during database development. The new system is analyzed using the previous and current reports.
– Meanwhile the to-be database systems are analyzed using Context Diagram and Data Flow Diagram.
2.8.3 DESIGN PHASE
Database design begins with a conceptual data architected or model and the resulted a specification of a logical schema. This will usually get the specific kind of MYSQL database system (network, relational, object-oriented) that is needed, but the implementation of the detailed design is not the same. The Data Flow Diagram and Context Diagram from Analysis phase are now useful to begin the design phase (Cooper, 2009).

2.8.4 IMPLEMENTATION
According to a given database design document implementation consist the construction of a computer system and taking notice of the MYSQL surrounding in which the system will be perform. Implementation may be tested, usually with an old system than can be validated and tested before a new system is released for use.

2.8.5 TESTING
Cooper (2009) analyzed the implemented system against the Database specification and requirements specification and result in acceptance report or a list of bugs and errors that need a review of the planning, analysis, design and implementation stages to check. Testing is mainly considered to consist of two main jobs; validation and verification without enough testing, end user will have low belief in their information processing.

CHAPTER THREE
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter explains the method used in carrying out this project in this section we presents the problems with the existing system with a view to proposing a new system, The architecture of the proposed system in terms of system model, flowcharts, class diagrams, use case diagram, database structure are presented and the network architecture for the system.

3.2METHODOLOGY
Information necessary for the development of the new system was gathered by means of interviews and observation. The proposed system is presented using UML diagrams and the corresponding databases are designed using MySql database while the system is implemented in PHP using apache web services for database administration.
3.3 PROBLEMS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM
a. Tracking of prisoner record based on registration numbers proves to be difficult due to manual storage methods currently employed in most prisons.

b. Some prisoner jailing expiration may not be discovered on time thus leading to the embarrassment of both prisoner and jailer.

c.Detection of fraud is not prompt as details are not on a centralized location for ease of access.

3.3 DESIGN OF AN ONLINE PRISON MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Here we present a proposal to set up an online prison management system with the aim of carrying the following operations.

Prisoner Number generation- the system would be able to generate codes for prisoners.

Record Retrieval – the system would provide an interface to aid the search for convicts by name or criminal case for reference purposes.

Centralized Administration – The system would allow for centralized system administration which would enhance monitoring of prison data by authorized personnel.

A biometric system that capture the identity of the inmate
Cell management: the system would allow for management cells based on convict information.
Centralized database that will store the record of inmates.

3.4 SYSTEM DESIGN
This section presents the working of the system using flow chart design, structure chart and class diagram representation of the proposed system.
We begin with the uses of the system as seen from the workers and administrator in the use case diagram below.
Fig 3.1 Use case view of Proposed Online Prison Management system
Prisoner Registration
Searches database using any given Prisoner information
Updates Prisoner information
Delete or remove invalid data
Registration and Authorization of staff for system access/biometric
Monitoring of system
Administrator
Jailer

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3.4.1 SYSTEM WORK FLOW
The system is interacted with using a web browser interface. This gives access to warder information, prison cells, convicts and crime cases. All these objects submit data to and from the database which is on the web server hosted online or offline.
WEB
INTERFACE
WARDERS
CELLS
CONVICTS
CASES/BIOMETRIC
Web Database (Apache Mysql)

Fig. 3.2: The System Work flow architecture of the Proposed System
Software
Operations
3.4.2 CLASS DIAGRAM
Class diagram as sub-set of Unified Modeling Language (UML) is regarded as a base-line general-purpose modeling language in the study of software engineering. The quid-line is control, and was developed by, the Object Management Group. UML consist of a set of graphic notation methods to develop visual models of software-intensive systems. Wemakeuse of class diagrams here to mimic our model for the proposed system operations
3.4.2.1 CELL GENERATOR CLASS
CELL_GEN
+CellId: int+CellCode: String
+Datetime: Timestamp
+status:String

updateDatabase(): void
Returnresult():void
Get User Credentials
Process
conn: String

getCode(): String
loopMakeRange(): String
Genkey(): void

Fig. 3.3: Class Diagram for Cell Generation
3.4.2.3 CONVICT REGISTRATION CLASS
+session_id: string
+biodata:String+level:intPrisoner Details
Validate():booleanSave to Database
Process
+Fields:StringGenerateRecord():void
ReturnResponse():void
Close database entry
Reset
Process Complete
Response:StringIf input is missing
Returnerror()InputChecker()
Fig. 3.4: Class Diagram for convict registration
3.4.2.3 CRIME REGISTRATION CLASS
+session_id: string
+crime:String+datetime:dateCrime Details
Validate():booleanSave to Database
Process
+Fields:StringGenerateRecord():void
ReturnResponse():void
Close database entry
Reset
Process Complete
Response:StringIf input is missing
Returnerror()InputChecker()
3.4.5 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM
The sequence diagram is focused on the overall working sequence of the proposed system. The program sequence is triggered from the main interface which has methods for login and search for convicts. This is linked to scanning sequence for fingerprint scan or barcode scan. The checkpoints section handles entering data to checkpoint database and retrieval to the main interface. The database manages all data from convicts. Sequence returns a trace result and verdic to the main interface.

Login()print()cellChange()Da()bail()Da()dataformats()Da()sqlOPs()Da()print()Da()searchPrisoner()dataCollection()Da()interfaceWeb interface
Php engine
databaseupdateDbase()Da()
Fig 3.7 Sequence diagram for the proposed system.
3.5.2 SYSTEM MODEL DESIGN
Index page: listing of all options
Data Registration
Record Updates
Data Deletion
Administrator
Assign Registration No
Database
Delete/Add Authorized Warders

Software
Operations

Fig 3.2 Data Model Design for Jailing Information Management System
3.5.3 DATABASE DESIGN
The system has one master database named “jailing”. The database has tables – prisoners, warders, cells and crimes table.

Table 3.1 PRISONER RECORD TABLE
S/N FIELD NAME DATA TYPE LENGTH
1. REGNO VARCHAR 20
2. FIRSTNAME VARCHAR 20
3. LASTNAME VARCHAR 20
4 SEX VARCHAR 10
5 DATE_OF_BIRTH DATE 25
6 KINNAME VARCHAR 25
7 MOBILENO VARCHAR 25
8 EMAIL VARCHAR 40
9 ENTRYDATE DATE 20
10 REGDATE DATE 20
Table 3.2 WARDERS TABLE
S/N FIELD NAME DATA TYPE LENGTH
1. FIRSTNAME VARCHAR 20
2. LASTNAME VARCHAR 20
3. EMAIL VARCHAR 25
4. MOBILE VARCHAR 25
5. USERNAME VARCHAR 25
6 PASSWORD VARCHAR 25
Table 3.3 CRIMES TABLE
S/N FIELD NAME DATA TYPE LENGTH
1. REGNO VARCHAR 20
2. CRIME VARCHAR 20
3. DETAILS VARCHAR 25
4. DATE VARCHAR 25
5. ID INT 25
Table 3.4 CELLS TABLE
S/N FIELD NAME DATA TYPE LENGTH
1. CELLNO INT 200
2. REGNO VARCHAR 200
3. AVAILBLE VARCHAR 255
4. ROW VARCHAR 255
5. FLOOR VARCHAR 255
CHAPTER FOUR
IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is concern with the implementation and testing phase, which constitute the main part of the new system. The software and hardware required for the implementation of the automated crime record system are as follows:
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
The software required for implementing the online convicts crime record system are:
Operating system : Windows 7/windows vista/windows xpProgramming language : PHP, MySqlWeb development tool : Apache2Triad1.54 for windows, Adobe for Dreamweaver cssWord processor : Microsoft word (Ms Office 2007)
HARDWARE REQUIREMENT
The hardware requirements are as follows:
Minimum system requirement; 1 gigabyte (GB) RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit)
1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster 32-bit (×86) or 64-bit (×64) processor
16 GB available hard disk space (32-bit) or 20 GB (16-bit)
RECOMMENDED SYSTEM REQUIREMENT
Intel (R) core 2 Duo CPU T5670 @ 1.80 GHz processor, 3.0 GB RAM or higher.

UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE {UML)
The UML is a basic modelling language used for creating software systems of different complexities. UML brings a set of notations and procedure for developing a simple, well-documented and easy to comprehend software models
Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson created UML, which is a base-line modeling language and the initial version was created in June 1996 (Booch, Rumbaugh, and Jacobson, 1996). UML Is a non-propriety language the goal of UML is:
to create a simple and ready-to-use expressive visual modeling language that allows the user to visualize the system
to be process independent
to be language independent
UML enables system engineers to create a standard blueprint of any system. It provides a number of graphical tools that can be used to visualize a system from different viewpoint. These multiple views of the system that are represented by using diagrams together depict the model of the system.

UML can be applied to represent different aspects of a software intensive system through different kinds of view. The views typically apply are:
User view: depict the aim and objectives of the system from the viewpoint of the user’s.

Structural view: depict the static’s or idle point of the system
Behavioural view: represents the changing point of the system
Implementation view: depict the distribution of the logical element which made up of source code structure and un-time structure implementation of the system.

Environment view: depict the distribution of the physical elements of the system. The surrounding view represents nodes that connote a part of the physical hardware requirement for the deployment of the system.

IMPLEMENTATION
This chapter also deals with the programming in the implementation phase, which constitutes the main part of the new system. Documentation in the new system provides adequate information and instructions that enables the user to use then new systems effectively. Programming is the process of writing series of instructions {otherwise called codes} in a programming language to perform a particular task. it is a set of rules for instructing the computer what operation to perform.

4.4 FEATURES OF PHP (HYPERTEXT PRE-PROCESSOR) AS A PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
A computer languages also know as programming languages is used to write computer programs. Common computer languages have the following features:
The language should contain inbuilt data structures and data types
The language should have a syntax that is consistent, natural and promotes the readability of the programs.

The ability to freely format a code, which enables programmer the ease to use the methods, such as indentation and blank lines to bring out the structure and improve the readability of the program.

The language should allow the user of meaningful identifier to name program objects, and should have a consistent syntax.

A language should have clarity and simplicity
A language should support the concept of data hiding, inheritance, polymorphism, dynamic binding and user-defined data types.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
The choice of programming language here is guided by the following characteristics;
Availability of resources and support for maintaining programs such as libraries
cross-platform capabilities
networking capabilities
Good memory management.

Simplicity
Security
The programming language chosen by the researcher to build the program in this project is PHP {Hypertext pre-Processor formerly known as personal Home Page Tools} as it supports the above features, therefore it is the language of implementation in this project.

Choosing it because of its server-side nature is mainly for security and ability to protect program code from users who may wish to exploit it. By being server-side, all the users get at their end is the HTML, resulting from the output of the PHP Code execution.
Its sole purpose of existence {which is to build dynamic web pages} is a factor that makes it very popular programming language to use. servers using PHP For their dynamic content are cheaper than web servers using other technologies because PHP is free and its interpreter is even open source, meaning programmers may get the PHP source code and make modifications on it that best suit their needs and compile the code.

HTML {HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE}
The easiest explanation of how HTML operates derives from complete expansion of its acronym: Hypertext Makeup Language. Hypertext refers to one of the World Wide Web’s main properties – the ability to jump from one page to another, irrespective of where the pages are placed on the web. Makeup language means that a web page is actually a heavily represent text file. the basic building blocks, such as <Strong> and <p>, are known as mark-up elements or tags, An HTML page, is a set of instructions {the tags} suggesting to your browser how to display the enclosed text and images. The browser known what kind of page it is handling based on the tag that opens the page, <html>, and the tag that closes the page </html>.

4.5.2 MYSQL
My S-Q-L or My Sequel.” is an open source relational database management system. it is used for adding, removing and modifying information in the database. MYSQL can also use SQL commands, such as ADD, DROP, INSERT, and UPDATE.

MySQL can be used for different applications, but is usually commonly found on web server. A website that inculcates MySQL may consist of web pages that access information from a database. These pages are seldom referred to as “dynamic”. Websites that use dynamic web pages are often referred to as database-driven, many database –driven website that use MySQL also apply a web convictsing language like PHP to get information from the database. MySQL commands can be put into the PHP code, enabling part or all of a web page to be gotten from database information. Since both MySQL and PHP are both open source {meaning they are free to download and use}, the PHP-MySQL combination has become a popular choice for database-driven websites.

JUSTIFICATION OF USE OF MYSQL
MYSQL was chosen for the following reasons:
Its portability, as it works on different platforms, apply multi-layered server design with stand alone modules.

Security, as it has a role and password system that is very flexible and secure.

Connectivity, as clients can connect to it using several protocols.

Localization, as servers can produce error messages to users in many languages.

4.7 INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION OF WEB DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
The tools used for the development of the online convicts crime record system includes PHP, MySql, php, MyAdmin (all these are available in the Apache2Triad1.54 Server) and Abode Dreamweaver.

The procedure and configuration are as follows
Download Apache2triad1.54 server from http://www.Apache2Triad1.54server.com/en/Click on download and select the appropriate version to download, which is based on the system configuration.

This downloads the installer setup, you double click on it, and then the wizard will guide you through the installation of Apache2Triad1.54 Server contents that is MySql, PHP.

4.8 DOCUMENTATION
The codes used for the implementation of the automated crime record system application consist of home/index.php or home page and other web pages that are linked to the web page.

The Phpconvicts are as follows:
Index.php – the home page
Loginform.php– logon page
convict/index.php – convict profile module access
Admin/index.php – Administrator module access.

4.9 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
User Interface
This page enable user to login and have access to the system

Figure4.1: Login interface –warders and administrators
In the login page user are provided with a field where he or she can login into the system with username and password and then press the login button. The level of access of the user depends on the privileges assign to the user in the database. This is shown in Figure 4.1
Home page for warders
This home page enable the administrator to navigate round the different modules of the system such as inmate registration, view inmate record, view compliant, grant bail etc as shown in figure4.2.

Figure4.2: home page
Register Prisoner
The prisoner registration page enables the admin/warder to register the basic information about inmate such as prisoner full name, date of birth, sex, nationality, picture of the inmate as well as the finger print of the inmate. This is shown in figure 4.3 below.

Figure4.3: registration page
Prisoner dash board
The dashboard contain the registered information of the inmate in the database as shown in figure 4.4 below

Figure4.4: dashboard page
Crime database management
The crime database contain different link or the case file number of different inmate in the database as shown in figure 4.5 below

Figure4.5: criminal database
Bail interface
The bail interface page enables the admin to know the different inmate who has been granted bail or due for bail.

Figure4.6: Bail interface page
Inmate search
This page enables the administrator to search for inmate in the database by using Case_No, or the name of the inmate. This is shown in figure 4.7 below.

Figure 4.7: Inmate search page
Biometric capture for prisoners
This page contains the finger print of the inmate taken during registration. The finger print of the inmate enables the administrator to eradicate the exchange and impersonation of the inmate. This is shown in figure 4.8 below

Figure4.8: biometric page
Print slip per inmate
This page contain the print slip of the inmate for identification, it contain the crime details of the criminal trial date, and other information about the crime.

Figure4.9: inmate print slip
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SUMMARY
The use of centralized database system in managing records of inmate in the prison is important due to its reduction of workload on the part of humans and aids speed in terms of processing. It has now embraced the new method in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the development, modernization, increase of prisons. Internetworking in the entire jails within Nigeria for distributing data associated with prison warder or prisoner who had been put in different prison in Nigeria to enhance the law and order in the country.

5.2 CONCLUSION
Organization of prisons alongside with inmates’ information is an important area in the security of the national which becomes vital in modern volatile security situation. Prison management in Nigeria is still in a earlier stage using manual system of files to store and manage prison information. This system is cumbersome as well as looking up of specific information is difficult and tedious. This greatly acts as a hindrance to the flow of critical information. All these lacks are removed using the online Database Prison Management System (DPMS). DPMS effectively record entire the information in clean prison profiles which have all the necessary information about an inmate’s as well as biometric details are attached with the profile. Identifier code can be apply as a search key to know prison records by comparing them with external database that are found at crime scene. All these improvements greatly reduce the time at which specific information is delivered to concerned agencies.
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
The database Prison Management System can only be use for a single prison. But the system has the area to be developed as a distributed application where each implementation of PMS in various prisons can be together and interact with one another. In that scenario a person managing one prison can access the data of prison information. This will enable the whole system to be centralized as well as well connected in a single database. This will enable the end user who has the security clearance a single portal where he/she can view prison records from other prisons in Nigeria.

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