CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1:-INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUTION
The project titled “DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE IN VEHICLE SYSTEM” is an attempt to highlight the various possibilities of acquiring an environmentally friendly and efficient power source the use of high pressure expanding air, to power the engine piston is the fundamental process in the function of all engine with reciprocating engine. In the project we have used highly pressurized air to provide that necessary force to case a reciprocation of the piston and thereby produced power. This air is introduced in to the engine cylinder of the top dead centre position of piston through a timing valve, thereby giving the air the maximum capacity to impart its force on the piston. The emission from this process is nil and 100% eco-friendly. We have shown that with the smallest of change in our existing engine design we can incorporate this technology in our present modes of transportation. We have shown a positive way of implementing this technology and as always with any system; this has tremendous potential for improvement and perfection.

Figure 1: Parsey’s compressed air engine
There are several technical benefits of using this engine, like no combustion takes place inside the cylinder; working temperature of engine is very close to ambient temperature. This helps in reducing wear and tear of the engine components. Also there is no possibility of knocking. This in turn results in smooth working of engine. Additional technical benefits are that there will be no need for installing cooling system or complex fuel injection systems. With the exhaust temperature of the engine being slightly less than the atmospheric temperature (i.e. 15-25degc) it will help in cooling the environment. Exhaust gases leaving the engine will be only air having low temperature. This will eliminate the problem of harmful emissions, in conventional engines.

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1.2 NEED OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS
Automobile are responsible for a tremendous amount of air pollution and wasted energy. These problems impact people all over the worlds, both motorists and non-motorists alike, by affecting their health, their economies, and their communities. One way cars create pollution is by contributing to the amount of ground-level ozone.

In the atmosphere, the ozone layer shields the planet from harmful ultraviolet radiation rays. But on the ground, ozone is another matter, causing hazy smog and respiratory problems. Most ozone pollution is caused by motor vehicles, which account for 72% of nitrogen oxides and 52% of reactive hydrocarbons. The seriousness of ground-level ozone should not be underestimated.

Cars also pollute by emitting lead from leaded gasoline. Although the use of lead in gasoline is banned in the United States, leaded gasoline is common in other countries. In fact, of the countries for which data is available, 43% use nothing but leaded gasoline. Many of rest use at least some leaded gasoline in their energy mix. This is a definite cause for concern.

Perhaps even scarier than the direct damage to our bodies from auto pollution is the fact that car emissions are contributing to an overall warming of the entire planet, which could destroy the world’s food chain.

Cars emit carbon dioxide (CO2), a heat-trapping gas. In fact, they emit a lot of it 20 pound per gallon of gas burned. Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have increase by 30% since preindustrial times, and much of that increase is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels.

According to the world watch institute: “CO 2 levels are now at their highest points in 160,000 years, and global temperatures at their highest since the middle ages”. These harmful side effects of the fossil fuels in general and automobile pollution in particular, drive the need for a clean and eco-friendly fuel.

These lead to inventors looking for a different fuel source. Thus the field of alternative fuels was born. The important aim of these alternative fuel technologies is to produce a power source as efficient and powerful as the existing I.C. engine.

1.3 TECHNICAL BENEFITS
The temperature of the engine while working will be slightly less than the ambient temperature.

Smooth working of engine due to very less wear and tear of the components.

There is no possibility of knocking.

No need of cooling systems and spark plugs or complex fuel injection systems.

1.4 ECONOMIC BENEFITS
No use of expensive fossil fuels as the free air is compressed and taken to use.

For this reason people can easily shift to the new technology.

Compressors use electricity for generating compressed air which is relatively much cheaper and widespread.

Smooth working will lead to less wear and tear, so lesser maintenance cost.

1.5 LITRATURE REVIEW
Qihui Yu, Maolin Cai, 16 October 2015, 1 concludes that in the first instance, the output power ascends sharply with the increasing rotation speed and reaches to maximum value. After this peak, the output power drops sharply. And when the supply pressure is 2 MPa, the maximum output power is 1.92 kW; the maximum output torque is 56.55 N?m; and the maximum efficiency is 25%.

S. S. Verma 2 concludes that it’s important to remember that while vehicles running on only compressed air might seem like a distant dream, but they still have public interest due to their environmental friendly nature. Efforts should be to make them light, safe, cost effective and economical for deriving. The storage of compressed air (initially as well as during journey) with all benefits like no heating, high energy density and provisions to make use of cooling produced during adiabatic expansion during the energy release have to be taken care off in a much more controlled manner.

Mistry Manish k., Prof. Sorathiya Arvind S. and Dr.Pravin P.Rathod 3 concludes that continue need of energy is increases, but basically conventional source of energy is limited due to that rate on price of petroleum is also continues hiked day by day. To satisfy there need alternate fuel or energy is required. But while considering alternate fuel some of factors are to be considered like availability, economy, and environment friendly etc., based on that CAT (Compressed Air Technology) is best technology which tend engine to zero pollutions.

Lalit Patel and Dr. Ratnesh Sukla 4 concludes that Air Technology can be one of the best alternative, as the pollution caused is zero and it is also cost efficient. The experiment which was performed also show that the vehicle ran at a good speed of 60kmph and the increased weight was 18.5kgs which only nominally affected the efficiency of the engine. Also there was no pollution caused. Hence it’s a better and sustainable and eco-friendly than fuels such as petrol etc. On the whole, the technology is just about modifying the engine of any regular IC engine vehicle into an Air Powered Engine. The Air Powered Engine technology is cheaper in cost and maintenance, can be easily adapted by the masses and it doesn’t cause any kind of harm to the environment.

Vikram Singh and Amit Tiwari 5 concludes that this is a revolutionary engine design which is eco friendly, pollution free, but also very economical. This redresses both the problems of fuel crises and pollution. It can be seen that the indicated power is increasing for increase of load. As load is increased, the speed falls down, to maintain it constant injection pressure has to be increased. As the injection pressure has to be increased, the indicated mean effective pressure gets increased; hence the indicated power is increased upon the application of the load. Though the applied load was small, however, the developed power was in proportion to the applied load. As load was applied the speed was reduced, to maintain it constant, the inlet air pressure has to be increased.

Prof. B.S. Patel, Karm shah, Mr. R.S. Barotand Pushpendra Sharma 6 was to develop a compressed air by modifying a 4-storke single cylinder SI engine by replacing the spark plug with a pulsed pressure valve, and using compressed air as the Working fluid. The working of the engine is explained theoretically and the cost analysis is made which shows that the compressed air engine is cheaper is compared to the conventional S.I. engine.

Saurabh Pathak, konthamswetha, v. Sridhar and V.S.V Prabhakar 7 was tried and To develop the light weight compressed air vehicle. By reducing the weight of the vehicle as it helps in the better handling of the vehicle and increases efficiency of the vehicle. He was extent of research done and the potential advantages and disadvantages of the compressed air technology.

Prof. Mohammadmasood Masood 8 was designed and developed a modified to compressed air engine from I.C. engine. He was used special type connecting rod and developed proto designed engine, however the concept can be applied on a professionally designed engine to improve its performance. Experimental analysis were carried out on this modified engine and to find out it’s performance characteristic like, brake power, mechanical efficiency, air to air ratio, volumetric efficiency and cost analysis etc.

Rahul B. Dudhat, Nainesh R. Patel and Manish K. Mistry 9 were present a new idea of using compressed air as power sources for motorcycle. The electricity requirement for compressing air has to be considered while computing overall efficiency. They are 4stroke engine by few modifications. After complete the air driven engine they are test experimental analysis was carried out and this modified engine and its performance characteristics like brake power, indicated power etc. are analyzed.

Chih-yang huang, Cheng-Kang hu, and cheny-kuo sung 10 were present experimental Investigation of a piston engine driven by compressed air in December 2012. The Compressed air engine was modified 100 cc I.C. engine obtained from a manufacturer. He was modified engine from a 4-stroke to a 2-storke engine using cam system driven by a crank shaft and the intake and exhaust valve have a small lift due to this modification. After modifying the air driven engine he was investigate and find out the performance
SwadhinPatnaik, May – Oct 2015 11 concluded that we have developed an “AIR ENGINE” which helps to know how to achieve compressed air vehicle. The application of pneumatics produces smooth operation. By using more techniques, they can be modified and developed according to the applications.

Gaurav Kumar tandan , Gopal Sahu, Prakash Kumar Sen, Ritesh Sharma, November-2015 12 concluded that while vehicles running on only compressed air might seem like a distant dream, but they still have public interest due to their environmental friendly nature. After ten years of research and development, the compressed air vehicle will be introduced worldwide. If further improvement is carried out with stress analysis, thermodynamic analysis, minimize compressed energy loss and other losses then efficiency of CAE may be further increases.

I.I.Sayyad, Aniket Karandikar, Anuja Murkute, June 2016 13 concluded that The air powered vehicle are the best options which provide most comprehensive answer to the present urban pollution problems in simple, economic and inoffensive manner. This is clean, easy to drive, comparatively low cost and does not take a life time to pay off. Thus these vehicles are safe to manufacture, safe to use, safe to users and also Environment friendly.

Kripal Raj Mishra, GauravSugandh, Nov- Dec. 2014 14 concluded that the conventional source of energy is limited due to that price of petroleum or gasoline is continuously rising. To satisfy our need alternate fuel or energy is required. But while considering alternate fuel some factors be considered as like availability, eco-friendly etc. Since Compressed Air Technology (CAT) is best technology which tend engine to zero pollutions and through this we can power our cars, ships, train anything except aero plane.

Bilal Abdullah Baig, Hakimuddin Hussain, February-2015 15 from the observation it can be concluded that compressed air power car can prove to the future vehicles. This is a revolutionary engine design which is eco friendly, pollution free, but also very economical. This redresses both the problems of fuel crises and pollution. These are zero emission vehicles. To sum it up, they are non-expensive cars that do not pollute and are easy to get around in cities. At the same time the well to wheels efficiency of these vehicles need to be improved. The performance can be improved by increasing inlet pressure, reducing the vehicle weight etc. However excessive research is needed to completely prove the technology for both its commercial and technical viability.

1.6 LITRATURE OUTCOME
From the literature we can conclude that they have done tremendous work on the finding the break power, indicated power, increasing in efficiency of an engine, reduced air pollution caused by vehicle. But they have done less work on the design side and on performance of engine so we are doing work on the design of engine and doing performance analysis of compressed air engine.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF PRESENT WORK
Uses air energy for small movement of machine to reduce human effort.

Small and light weight.

To increase the efficiency of an engine at low cost.

To reduce global warming.

1.8 COMPONENTS OF COMPRESSED AIR DRIVEN ENGINE

Figure 2:-Schematic diagram of compressed air driven engine.

Air filter
Air compressor
Air storage tank
Regulating valve
Engine
Air compressor:-

Figure 3:-Reciprocating type of air compressor
An air compressor is a mechanical device that increase the pressure of an air by reducing its volume compressor is similar to pumps: both increased the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of gas liquid are relatively incompressible, so the main action of a pump is too pressurized and transport liquids.

Piston:-

Figure 4:- Piston
Its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod or connecting rod.

Cylinder:-

Figure 5:- Cylinder
A cylinder is the center working part of a reciprocating engine the space in which a piston travels. Cylinder is made from cast iron.

Crank shaft:-

Figure 6:- Crank shaft
The function of crank shaft is the part of engine which translate reciprocating motion into rotary motion or vice versa. Crank shaft consist of the shaft parts which revolve in the main bearing, the crank pin to which the big ends of the connecting rods are connected, the crank webs or cheeks which connect the crank pins and shaft parts.

Cam shaft:-

Figure 7:- Cam shaft
Cam shaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms and integral parts. For this reason, the cam shaft is connected to crank shaft either directly, via a gear mechanism, or in directly via a belt or chain called the timing chain.

Pressure gauge:-

Figure 8:- Pressure gauge
The pressure gauge is used to measure or display the pressure at the position at which the pressure gauge is installed. The pressure gauge is used to measure the mean effective pressure and how much pressure in the storage tank.

CHAPTER 2:- WORKING PRINCIPLE
2.1 WORKING PRICIPLE OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE
The principle of the CADE derived from the steam engine in which the pressure energy is converted to kinetic energy. The compressed air engine uses compressed air insert of steam. The compressed air has pressure which on expansion moves the piston which is converted to rotary motion through crank and connecting rod mechanism.

PRESSURE ENERGY ? KINETIC ENERGY
2.2 WORKING:-
In the compressed air engine, the cycle of operation gets completed with two strokes of the piston or one revolution of the crank. The two strokes are,
1. Expansion or power stroke:-

Figure 9:- Power stroke
During this stroke the piston moves from the TDC to BDC. At the beginning of this stroke the inlet valve is opened and allowed the compressed air stored in the tank expand inside the cylinder. This moves the piston down as pressure energy of air gets converted into kinetic energy thus producing a power stroke.

Just before reaching BDC especially design of cam mechanism closes the inlet valve and the piston uncovers an exhaust valve through which the expanded gas to the atmosphere. This reduces the load on the piston by reducing the amount of air present inside the cylinder during the return stroke.

2. Exhaust stroke:-

Figure 10:- Exhaust stroke
During this stroke piston moves from BDC to TDC. Initially the piston covers the exhaust valve and the cam mechanism opens the exhaust valve. The remaining air trapped inside is expelled to the atmosphere through the exhaust valve and the cycle continues.

CHAPTER 3:- DESIGN OF CAM SHAFT

Figure 11:- Cam mechanism153021385
Figure 12:- Modified cam mechanism
Reference from 16 17
Timing gear ratio = 2:1
Speed of cam shaft = 0.5* speed of crank shaft
Engine cylinder diameter = 50 mm
Diameter of cam shaft = (0.16 * Bore diameter of cylinder) + 12.5
= (0.16 * 50) + 12.5
= 20.5
Diameter of cam shaft = 21 mm
Base circle diameter of the cam = Diameter of the cam shaft + 5
= 21 + 5
= 26 mm
Base circle diameter of the cam = 26 mm
Width of the cam = (0.09 * cylinder bore diameter) + 6
= 10.5
Width of the cam = 12 mm
Inlet & outlet cam design :
Base circle diameter = 26 mm
Lift = 6 mm
Width of the cam = 12 mm
3.1 SPECIFICATION OF AN ENGINE:-
We will use the engine Hero Honda passion plus,
Type: -4 stroke, single cylinder, air cooled
Bore Diameter: -50mm
Stroke length: – 49mm
Capacity: -97cc
Ignition system: – Spark ignition
Stating system: -Kick starter
3.2 AEIOU SUMMERY:-
AEIOU is an investigative tool to help interpret observation gathered by ethnographic practices in the field. Ethnographic method involves notes, photos, videos, interviews, field observation, etc. AEIOU SUMMERY is a lens to observe the surrounding environment. It is an observation tool. Its two primary functions are to code data, and to develop building blocks of models that will ultimately address the objectives and issues of a client.

Figure 13:- AEIOU summery
Activities:-
Cranking
Ignition
Travelling
Breaking
Regulating
Compressing
Filtering
Environment:-
Less noisy
Less smoke produce
Eco-friendly
Interaction:-
Manufacturer
Seller
Student
Engineer
Customer
Objects:-
Engine
Air compressor
Cam shaft
Crank shaft
Pressure gauge
Piston & cylinder
Users:-
Worker
Student
Engineer
Postmen
Policemen
3.3 Ideation canvas:-
Ideation is the creative process of generating, developing, and communicating new ideas, where an idea is understood as a basic element of thought that can be visual, concrete, or abstract. Ideation comprises all stages of a thought cycle, from innovation, to development, to actualization. As such, it is an essential part of the design process, both in education and practice.

Figure 14:- Ideation canvas
Peoples: -A peoples whose uses or operates something.

Engineer
Owner
Student
Worker
Activities: – A thing that a person or group does or has done.

Cranking
Filtering
Compressing
Ignition
Travelling
Breaking
Regulating
Situation/context/location:-
Travelling
College
Polluted country
Difficult to get fuel
Industry
Props/possible solutions:-
Low maintenance
No use of fossil fuel
Reduce air pollution
Based on air energy

3.4 Product development canvas:-
In engineering, product development is the complete process of bringing a new product to market. Product development is described in the literature as the transformation of a market opportunity into a product available for sale and it can be tangible or intangible. A good understanding of customer needs and wants, the competitive environment and the nature of the market represent the top required factors for the success of a new product cost, time and quality are the main variables that drive the customer needs. Aimed at these three variables, companies develop continuous practices and strategies to better satisfy the customer requirements and increase their market share by a regular development of new products.

Figure 15:- Product development canvas
Purpose: -The reason for which something is done or created or for which something exists.

Reduce global worming
Reduce air pollution
No fossil fuel used
Less cost
Low maintenance
People: – A peoples whose uses or operates something.

Worker
Engineer
Owner
Student
Product function: -A product functions relates physical output of a production process to physical input.

Power produced
Zero pollution
Pressure energy converted into kinetic energy
Product experience:-
Eco-friendly
Easy available
No heat generated
Product features: -Product features are physical characteristics of a product.

No heat generated
Less maintenance
Alternative fuel
Components: -Parts or elements of a product.

Engine
Air compressor
Pressure gauge
Cam shaft
Crank shaft
Piston & cylinder
3.5 Empathy mapping canvas:-
Good design is grounded in a deep understanding of the person for whom you are designing. Designers have many techniques foe developing this sort of empathy. An empathy map is one tool to help you synthesize your observations and draw out unexpected insights. “Needs” are human emotional or physical necessities. Needs are help to define your design challenge.

Figure 16:-Empathy mapping sheet
Users:-
Owner
Student
Engineer
Stakeholders:-
Engineer
Student
Manufacturer
Activities:-
Cranking
Air filtering
Compressing
Ignition
Breaking
Regulating
Piston travelling
Happy story 1:-
Compressed air engine is used where global warming and population is more so reduce the air pollution, it is used.

Happy story 2:-
Where fossil fuel is not easily available then this engine is very useful because it runs only on compressed air.

Sad story 1:-
From compressed air engine we get less power output so, it is less powerful compared to internal combustion engine.

Sad story 2:-
Its construction is complicated because there are many components are use like air compressor, air filter, pressure gauge etc. and it required more space.
1) Engine

2) Hose pipe

3) Pressure gauge

4) Assembly & working

3.6 Comparison
Air engine Petrol engine
Air is used as a working fluid. Petrol is used as a working fluid.

Inlet & exhaust valve open and close at same time after complete one cycle. Inlet & exhaust valve open and close at different time after complete two cycle.
Fuel consumption is less. Fuel consumption is high.

There is no heat generated because no combustion of fuel. Heat generated because combustion of fuel.

No cooling system is required. Cooling system is required.

Initial & maintenance cost is low. Initial & maintenance cost is high.

Air is cheaper than the petrol. Petrol is very costly.

Because of change in design of camshaft we can increase the efficiency of an engine. Efficiency of petrol engine is about 30-35%.

CHAPTER 4:- EXPERIMENTAL TESTING & RESULT
4.1 PURPOSE OF TESTING
Load testing is the process of loading the engine for the purpose of calculating the maximum torque and brake power by a load testing apparatus.
4.2 TESTING APPARATUS
Air engine
Brake drum
Spring balance
Rope and holding frame
Tachometer
Weight ( 1 kg to 3 kg )
4.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Figure 17:- Experimental setup
Make sure that all the connections were made correctly.

Make sure that all the valve of compression tank is in closed position.

Then the tank is filled up to the required pressure by running the compressor.

The electrical circuit is turned on by closing the connection.

Made sure that the engine is in no load condition.

Then the valve of the compressor tank is opened gradually to the maximum.

For the engine to start running and it is cranked with the help of the kick.

When the engine starts running and gained speed; no load reading of pressure in bar as indicated by the pressure gauge on the engine and the speed of the brake drum in RPM as indicated by the tachometer is taken down.

This process is repeated for different values of pressure ranging between 1 bar to 10 bars and the corresponding reading of speed of rotation are noted.

The readings thus obtained are in the column.

4.4 OBSERVATION TABLE
We have done experimental work. Take the reading for the experimental analysis. We have take reading by the use of tachometer and pressure gauge.

WEIGHT (Kg) PRESSUR(bar) & SPEED ( rpm )
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0 210 254 306 358 402 447 485
1 150 175 230 300 350 413 450
2 125 149 180 240 320 392 430
3 108 132 148 216 297 370 413
4.5 CALCULATION
Take the reading at 8 bars and 2 kg of load.

Torque (T) =
= {2} {9.81}
=4.6107 Nm
=3.43 ft/lbs
Brake Power (B.P) =
=
= 210.03 Watt
Mean Effective Pressure (M.E.P) = 150.8
Where,
CID = Cubic inch per displacement
=0.061CC
=0.06197
=5.917 CID
= 150.8
= 87.41 psi
= 6.146 bar
Indicated power (I.P) =
=
= 423.77 watt
Mechanical efficiency =
=
=49.56%
4.6 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
WEIGHT (Kg) TORQUE(N.m)
1 2.305
2 4.6107
3 6.416
Torque vs. Load
WEIGHT (Kg) PRESSURE (bar)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 36.2 42.24 55.61 72.41 84.48 99.61 108.63
2 60.8 71.94 86.95 115.8 154.57 189.26 210.03
3 78.21 91.95 107.18 156.43 215.09 268.96 299.11
If we can increase the load then increased the torque.

Brake power vs. Pressure
At constant load if increases pressure of air than increased brake power of the engine. If increase the load on the engine than increased brake power of the engine.

WEIGHT (Kg) PRESSURE (bar)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 73.25 85.46 112.33 146.53 170.95 201.8 219.86
2 124.7 146.84 177.4 236.52 315.36 386.32 423.77
3 158.28 193.56 216.91 316.57 435.28 542.48 605.45
Indicated power vs. Pressure
At constant load if increases pressure of air than increased indicated power of the engine. If increase the load on the engine than increased indicated power of the engine.

CHAPTER 5:- SUMMERY
5.1 ADVANTAGES
Use as renewable fuel.

Air, on its own is non-flammable.

It is eco-friendly fuel.

No heat generated because of there is no combustion of fuel.

Operation cost of engine is less.
No cooling system is required.

Maintenance is easy and less costly.

There is no probability of knocking.

5.2 DISADVANTAGES
Probability of air leakage.

Biggest disadvantage is the energy needed to compress the air is greater than the energy stored.

5.3 APPLICATIONS
For automobile
Job clamping
Fluid pump
Drive for conveyors
5.4 COST ESTIMATION
SR NO. EQUIPMENT QTY. COST (RS.)
1 Four stroke S.I. engine 1 6000
2 Engine stand 1 1400
3 Welding of camshaft – 100
4 Hose pipe 1 105
5 Flange 2 100
6 Connectors 5 200
7 Pressure gauge 1 150
8 Brake drum 1 1200
9 Rope 1 135
10 Spring 1 30
11 Nut and bolts – 75
12 Transportation – 1000
TOTAL 10495
CHAPTER 6:- CONCLUSION
We were able successfully complete the design of the camshaft of the engine. We were also able to gain practical knowledge about the basics of I. C. engine. After complete this project we can measure it various parameters like brake power, indicated power, mechanical efficiency and torque at various pressure and load. Pressure of air is 8 bars and 3 kg load we can achieve brake power of engine is 299 watt, 49.58% mechanical efficiency and 6.2 N.m torque.

We can say that the decrease the lift of camshaft and increase the mass of flywheel we can get constant engine speed and it can be run at minimum pressure.

We can say that change the modification of the cam shaft then we got maximum efficiency of the engine and effective result can be achieved.

6.1 FUTURE SCOPE
Design and fabrication of new engine made light metal will give better result. So we will change the design of engine and convert it from 4-stroke to 2-strokes.

Uses of compressed air tank for storage and supply.

Preheating of air supply for winter operations.

Recycling of air by using any free energy.

CHAPTER 7:- REFERENCES
Qihui Yu, Maolin Cai by “Experimental analysis of a compressed air engine”, school of automation science and electrical engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China, 16 October 2015, 3, 144-153.

S.S.Verma by “Latest developments of a compressed air vehicle: A status report”, Global journal of researches in engineering, volume 13, issue 1, version 1.0, 2249-4596, 2013.

Mistry Manish k., Dr. Pravin P.Rathod, Et al, by “Study and development of compressed air engine-single cylinder: A review study”, International journal of advanced engineering technology, 0976-3945, volume 3, issue 1, 2012/271-274.

Lalit Patel, Dr. Ratnesh Sukla, by “Zero pollution air powered engine: A review”, International journal for scientific research & development, volume 3, issues 08, 2015, 2321-0613.

Vikram Singh, Amit Tiwari, by “To convert 4 stroke petrol engine into air engine as a used of compressed air in two wheeler vehicle”, Journal of recent research in engineering and technology, volume 2, issue 3, March 2015, 2349-2252.

Prof. B.S.patel, Mr.R.S.Barot, Karan Shah, Pushpendra Sharma by “Air powered engine” National conference on report trends in engineering & technology – B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V. Nagar, Gujarat, India, 13-14 MAY 2014.

Saurabh Pathak, konthamswetha, v. Sridhar and V.S.V Prabhakar by “Compressed air Vehicle”, IRF International conference, Chennai – Vardhaman College of engineering, Shamshabad, India, 9- MARCH 2014.

Mohammad Masood by “Compressed air engine” – M. J. College of engineering, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India, 2006.

Rahul B. Dudhat, Nainesh R. Patel and Manish K. Mistry by “The investigational study of compressed air single cylinder engine for increase the performance” International journal of advance engineering technology – S.T.B.S Institute of technology, Surat, SEPT 2013.

Chih-yang huang, Cheng-Kang hu, and cheny-kuo sung by “Experimental investigation of the performance of a compressed air driven piston element”, – Energies 2013.

SwadhinPatnaik by “Compressed Air Engine”, Dept. of Mechanical engineering, SRM University, Chennai, India, Vol. 5, Issue 2, May – Oct 2015.

Gaurav Kumar tandan , Gopal Sahu, Prakash Kumar Sen, RiteshSharma by “A REVIEW PAPER ON STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE AND THERE POWER SOURCE”, International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2015
I.I.Sayyad, Aniket Karandikar, Anuja Murkute by “Compressed Air Vehicle”, Savitribai Phule Pune University,Pune(M.S.),INDIA, Volume 4 Issue VI, June 2016.

Kripal Raj Mishra, GauravSugandh by “Study about Engine Operated By Compressed Air (C.A.E): A Pneumatic Power Source”, Tula’s institute of Engineering ;Technology-248011, DEHRADUN, INDIA, Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. IV Nov- Dec. 2014.

Bilal Abdullah Baig, Hakimuddin Hussain by “Design and Fabrication of Compressed Air Powered Car”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, Volume: 3 Issue: 2 February 2015.

A text book of “DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENT” –R.S.Khurmi.

A text book of “THEORY OF MACHINE” –R.S.Khurmi.

CHAPTER 8:- APPENDIX
8.1 PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT: FIRST PPR
Project: Design and performance analysis of compressed air engine in vehicle system.

Status: Submitted
1) What Progress you have made in the Project?
We found some important data from the research paper and discussed it with our project guide and we will find the design parameter like brake power, indicated power and mechanical efficiency by testing.  
2) What challenge you have faced?
The main challenge is to convert 4 stroke engines into 2 stroke engine by changing its cam mechanism.

3) What support you need?
We need proper design of cam and technical support as per our purpose.

4) Which literature you have referred?
Paper name: – Experimental Analysis of a Compressed Air Engine.

Author name: – Qihui Yu, Maolin Cai.
Year: – 16 October 2015
Conclusion: – From this paper, a CAE was introduced, and thermodynamic characteristics and efficiency analysis were studied. To obtain the performances of CAE, a prototype of CAE was designed and adopted in test bench. The output power, torque and efficiency were obtained through experimental study. The conclusion is summarized as follows: 1) the performance of the CAE is mainly influenced by the rotation speed and supply pressure. 2) In the first instance, the output power ascends sharply with the increasing rotation speed and reaches to maximum value. After this peak, the output power drops sharply. 3) The prototype of CAE has a good economic performance under low speed. 4) When the supply pressure is 2 MPa, the maximum output power is 1.92 kW; the maximum output torque is 56.55 N•m; and the maximum efficiency is 25%.

8.2 PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT: SECOND PPR
Project: Design and performance analysis of compressed air engine in vehicle system.

Status: Submitted
1) What Progress you have made in the Project?
Designing of the different components of the project model and other usual changes.

2) What challenge you have faced?
The use of designing software for doing parts design is the challenged we have faced.

3) What support you need?
The more knowledge and practice about designing software.

4) Which literature you have referred?
We have preferred Dr. R s khurmi design data book.

8.3 PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT: THIRED PPR
Project: Design and performance analysis of compressed air engine in vehicle system.

Status: Submitted
1) What Progress you have made in the Project?
The components which is used in our project and to know the price at different shop and purchase the different parts which is suitable for us.

2) What challenge you have faced?
We know very well population is more in India so, by the use of air engine we can reduce the population and global warming that challenge we have faced.

3) What support you need?
The measurable equipment like tachometer which is used in our project work and technical support required for us.

4) Which literature you have referred?
Paper name: TO CONVERT 4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE INTO AIR ENGINE AS A USED OF COMPRESSED AIR IN TWO WHEELER VEHICLE
Author name: Vikram Singh and Amit Tiwary
Year: 2015
Conclusion: This is a revolutionary engine design which is eco friendly, pollution free, but also very economical. This redresses both the problems of fuel crises and pollution. However excessive research is needed to completely prove the technology for both its commercial and technical viability. It can be seen that the indicated power is increasing for increase of load. As load is increased, the speed falls down, to maintain it constant injection pressure has to be increased. As the injection pressure has to be increased, the indicated mean effective pressure gets increased; hence the indicated power is increased upon the application of the load. Though the applied load was small, however, the developed power was in proportion to the applied load. As load was applied the speed was reduced, to maintain it constant, the inlet air pressure has to be increased. As shown injection pressure is increased. In the present case the speed was maintained constant as 600 rpm. As the output speed was less the brake power was significantly lower. The mechanical efficiency is increasing with the increase of output power. At lower output it was very low.

8.4 PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT: FOURTH PPR
Project: Design and performance analysis of compressed air engine in vehicle system.

Status: Submitted
1) What Progress you have made in the Project?
Getting the reading of our working model is progress we have made.

2) What challenge you have faced?
The instruments for take the reading is hard to get this are the challenged we have faced.

3) What support you need?
We need the instrumental supports that are necessary in our model for taking the readings.

4) Which literature you have referred?
We have preferred Dr. R s khurmi design data book.

3949704368808.5 BUISNESS MODEL CANVAS
Figure 18:- Business model canvas
Key Partners:-
M.G.Poonawala PVT LTD.

Barkati
Jay bhartiya auto garage
Key Activities
Searching research papers
Collect the data about experimental setup
Purchasing of parts
Key Resources
Compressed air
Single cylinder S.I. engine
Tachometer
Value Propositions
Compressed air is free of cost
Compressed air is eco-friendly
Compressed air is alternative fuel
Customer Relationships
Customer demand
Social media
Suggestion from expert
Channels
Social media
News
Advertisement
Market suppliers
Customer Segments
Industry
Institute
Students
Special purpose
Domestic
Cost Structure
Experimental setup cost
Compressor rental cost
Travelling cost
Report cost
Other cost
Revenue Streams
Project sellers
Sponsors
Future scope
8.6 PDE DETAILS
Form 1 – APPLICATION FOR GRANT OF PATENT
Applicants:
Sr. No Name Nationality Address Mobile No. Email Id
1 Golakiya Swapnil Himmatbhai Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 73838-48521 [email protected]
2 Nayak Harsh Chetanbhai Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 93238-56602 [email protected] Patel Krenilkumar Raeshkumar Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 97263-33867 [email protected] Vashi Raj Jigneshbhai Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 91064-71638 [email protected]
Inventors:
Sr. No Name Nationality Address Mobile No. Email Id
1 Golakiya Swapnil Himmatbhai Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 73838-48521 [email protected]
2 Nayak Harsh Chetanbhai Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 93238-56602 [email protected] Patel Krenilkumar Raeshkumar Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 97263-33867 [email protected] Vashi Raj Jigneshbhai Indian Mechanical Engineering, VIDHYADEEP INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, Gujarat Technological University. 91064-71638 [email protected]
I/We, the applicant(s) hereby declare(s) that:
Following are the attachments with the applications:
Form 2 – PROVISIONAL/COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
Title of the project/invention:
Design and performance analysis of compressed air engine in vehicle system
Preamble to the description:
Provisional
Description:
Field of Project / Invention / Application:
Compressed air engine is use to reduce pollution and global warming. Where the fissile fuels are not easily available compressed air engine is use.

Prior Art / Background of the Project / Invention :
Compressed air driven engine “CADE” is an alternative technology which uses compressed air to run engine and thus eliminate the use of fossil fuel. This engine runs only high pressure compressed air, the exhaust of which undoubtedly only air, making it is a zero pollution engine.

Summary of the Project / Invention:
In CADE no heat generated because there is no combustion of fuel, hence this engine no needs any cooling system. CADE is better option to produced power to run automobile vehicle, generator etc.The engine was modified from 4-stroke to 2-stroke engine using a cam system which driven by crank shaft, and some another modification, it can driven by filter compressed air.

Objects of Project / Invention:
The project titled “DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE IN VEHICLE SYSTEM” is an attempt to highlight the various possibilities of acquiring an environmentally friendly and efficient power source. The use of high pressure air to power the engine piston is the fundamental process in the function of all engines with reciprocating engines.

Description of Project / Invention:
In the project we have used highly pressurized air to provide that necessary force to case a reciprocation of the piston and thereby produced power. This air is introduced in to the engine cylinder of the top dead centre position of piston through a timing valve, thereby giving the air the maximum capacity to impart its force on the piston. The emission from this process is nil and 100% eco-friendly. We have shown that with the smallest of change in our existing engine design we can incorporate this technology in our present modes of transportation. We have shown a positive way of implementing this technology and as always with any system; this has tremendous potential for improvement and perfection.

Claims (Not required for Provisional Application) / Unique Features of Project:
This engine can run only with pressurized air and the cycle is complete only in two strokes and one revolution of cam shaft.

Abstract of the project / invention:
Today, in the whole world major problem is pollution and global warming. In the present energy scenario the fossil fuel source (like petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG) are fast depleting and their combustion are causing global environment problem. So it is inevitable to shift toward the use of renewable energy source which in turn will reduce pollution and save fossil fuel. “DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE IN VEHICLE SYSTEM” is an alternative technology which uses compressed air to run engine and thus eliminate the use of fossil fuel. This engine runs only high pressure compressed air, the exhaust of which undoubtedly only air, making it is a zero pollution engine.

Claims:
Date ; Signature:

Form 3 – STATEMENT AND UNDERTAKING UNDER SECTION 8
Name of the applicant(s):
I/We, 
Golakiya Swapnil Himmatbhai, Nayak Harsh Chetanbhai, Vashi Raj Jigneshbhai, Patel Krenilkumar Rajeshkumar.

Name, Address and Nationality of the joint applicant:
Hereby declare:
That I/We have not made any application for the same/substantially the same victim invention outside India.

That the right in the application(s) has/have been assigned to
Name of the Country Date of Application Application Number Status of the Application Date of Publication Date of Grant
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
That I/We undertake that up to the date of grant of the patent by the Controller, I/We would keep him informed in writing the details regarding corresponding applications for patents filed outside India within three months from the date of filing of such application.

Dated this 19 day of April 2018
To be signed by the applicant or his authorized registered patent agent:
Signature……………..

Name of the Natural Person who has signed:
Golakiya Swapnil Himmatbhai, Nayak Harsh Chetanbhai, Vashi Raj Jigneshbhai, Patel Krenilkumar Rajeshkumar.

To,
The Controller of Patents,
The Patent Office
At Mumbai

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