CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Smartphones are the most have gadget nowadays. Smartphone addiction occur when someone is lonely and have nothing to do. According to Hawkey & Cacioppo, 2010, loneliness can cause stress and may affecting someone’s health. Loneliness is a serious issue when people do not care about it.
People have come with so many social activities to prevent themselves from being lonely. But what about the people that are shy to socializing with people in their surrounding? To avoid themselves from getting lonely, they play will play with their smartphone.
In addition, if they cannot overcome their ways of spending their time with smartphone to avoid getting lonely, in the future they will not be able to socialize and communicate with other people.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Loneliness among the young generation nowadays is a very common issue and the impact of it is they become addicted to smartphone to overcome their loneliness. University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus is the one of the place that this situation occurs. The students are mostly always play with their smartphone and sometimes do not care about their surroundings. To know the cause why they are feel lonely and why they choose smartphone to prevent them getting lonely, this study will conduct a research using questionnaires. The questionnaire will be distributed to 200 students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus as respondents.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study could provide information on the issue of the relationship of loneliness and addiction to smartphone among University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus. Further, this study will also state the reasons of why people get lonely. This study will be beneficial for the society and the students of University Malaysia Sabah itself; and as a reference for the future researcher that want to study more about this topic. This study could also help them to identify what are the factors that influence someone to be a smartphone addict.

1.4 RESEACRH OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this research study is to identify what is the main factor of the of getting lonely among University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus. The aim of this study is to give a solution on how to prevent loneliness and smartphone addiction among the students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
SMARTPHONE ADDICTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO LONELINESS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA SABAH LABUAN INTERNATIONAL CAMPUS
This survey aims to examine the main reason why the students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus feel lonely and being smartphone addiction

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS
Please mark ? only one appropriate answer.

1. Gender:
Male
Female
2. Race:
Malay
Chinese
Indian
Others: ____________________

3. Age (years old):
Less than 19
20-25
25 and above

4. Course:
HE 19 International Finance
HE 20 International and Offshore Banking
HE 21 International Marketing
HE 22 International Finance and Economy
HE 23 Islamic Banking
HC 12 Technology Multimedia
HC 13 E-commerce

SECTION B: SMARTPHONE USAGE IN DAILY LIFE
Please mark ? only one appropriate answer.

1. What is the application of smartphones you use frequently on your daily life?
Short Message Texting (SMS)
Games
Social Media
Others: ____________________

2. Duration in average spending on your smartphones daily?
Less than 1 hour
1 – 3 hours
4 – 6 hours
More than 6 hours

3. What is the social media application that you use frequently in daily?
Facebook
Wechat
Instagram
Twitter
Others: ____________________

4. What is the type of brand of mobile gadget you use?
Apple
Samsung
XiaoMi
Others: ____________________

?
SECTION C: PERCEPTION OF UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA SABAH LABUAN INTERNATIONAL CAMPUS TOWARDS SMARTPHONE ADDICTION AND LONELINESS
Please circle only one appropriate answer.
Strongly Disagree
Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4 5

Self-introvert
1. I do not like to talk with others. 1 2 3 4 5
2. I am not comfortable when I am with someone that I do not know. 1 2 3 4 5
3. I like play with my smartphone rather than talking with people. 1 2 3 4 5

Emotional state
1. I will feel sad when my smartphone broke or it is not with me. 1 2 3 4 5
2. I feel lonely when I do not play with my smartphone. 1 2 3 4 5
3. Smartphone is the only source to make me happy. 1 2 3 4 5

Phycological perception towards smartphone
1. I look for my smartphone as soon as I woke up. 1 2 3 4 5
2. I do not think that I am a smartphone addict. 1 2 3 4 5
3. I like to play with my smartphone when I am eating. 1 2 3 4 5

Self-ability to socialize
1. I have the ability of socializing with people that I do not know. 1 2 3 4 5
2. I like to make friends. 1 2 3 4 5
3. I am more comfortable when I am surround with people. 1 2 3 4 5

1.6 EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION
Throughout this study, it is expected that this study will identify what is the main factor of being lonely where it is leading to be a smartphone addict. This study will beneficiary for the researcher to clarify the issue of this study and achieve the main objective and the aim of this study. Further, this study could also contribute for other researcher, academicians and the students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus itself.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
This aim of this study is to find out about the smartphone and its relationship to loneliness among University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus students. Nowadays smartphone become one of the compulsory items that must have to the students. Students use smartphone as platform to them to find the information inside and worldwide. The most important are smartphone use as social platform and as a place to get in touch with issue of environment. Smartphone become basic needs among the students in this era globalization. This study is important to know and understand deeply about the student’s perception and how they use smartphone as media communication, explore information in their surroundings and platform to them to fill their loneliness. Is it can contribute to positive or negative to loneliness students? These Participants of this study have selected among students from UMSKAL based on how they are using smartphone to overcome their loneliness. This study will be conducted by using the quantitative data through distribute questionnaires.
2.2 REVIEW OF KEY STUDIES
Smartphones are trendy nowadays as a device that has capability to process more information. Smartphone have many function university students can use such as provide application of games; student can access internet network to connect with other and explore and install many application (DEM?RC?, April 2015). It can connect directly through the Wi-Fi and 3G eventually. Smartphone offer many of function and information once make connected. Students have so many choices of application to fill their loneliness by playing game, keep in touch with social network and other online activities (online selling and online shopping). Smartphones is more convenience devices and easy to bring along. It became first choice item for university student to fill their loneliness. Where ever place people go, they can bring smartphone together. Smartphone allowed the users to run the application which can provide entertainment, information and functionally focus on user’s need and want (WOODCOCK, 2012). Applications that have in smartphone device can be useful to fill the loneliness among university students. While having a smartphone on them, loneliness university student can get new information that can increase and expend their social activities. They can create social interaction more without boundaries through such as twitter, Google, YouTube, Facebook and instagram (Gomes, December 2011). One of the article mention that, majority of user smartphone from all around the world had spent more than five and half hour for per month in 2009 at social network sites compare with other online (Thadani, January 2011). They choose a smartphone as their alternative to reduce their loneliness and create more social activities. However, all of these will contribute to negative effect to the health lifestyle. If student keep go on to spent a lot of time with the smartphone in order to fill their loneliness, it will bring them to the not healthy life such as they will become depression, overthinking, feel anxiety and will disturb their quality (DEM?RC?, April 2015). Loneliness student should be balance between physical activities and social networks which might be helps university students to overcome loneliness despite make smartphone as their platform to overcome it (Park, 2014).

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHOD
3.0 INTRODUCTION
Methods applied to a field of study by using theoretical analysis can be called as methodology. It consists of principles related with a branch of knowledge and the theoretical analysis of the body of methods. Analysts utilize research method effectively to gathering and dissecting information. It will be utilized for noting the research inquiries and speculations in a more methodical and sorted out way. Normally, it contains theories such as phases, theoretical model, paradigm and quantitative or qualitative techniques (Irny, 2005). In this chapter, it contains proposed research method and proposed research framework to guarantee proper research techniques are surveyed with the goal for pursuers to have better assessing the result of research.
3.1 PROPOSED RESEARCH METHOD AND APPROACH
This research is using quantitative research method through questionnaire which combined with three sections: A, B, and C. Data collects from self-administered questionnaire is used for measurement and structural models where it concentrates on Smartphone and its relationship to loneliness among University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus students. The purpose of the research instrument is helping to get the result more accurately. There is primary data as data collection in this research. Primary data can be defined as data gathered by using questionnaires. It is a direct ordeal where data is produced and assembled by researcher.

3.2 PROPOSED RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
Figure 1: Research Framework

H1
H2

H3

Figure 1: A conceptual model for the determinants of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus student’s loneliness and relationship to smartphone.
Independent variable can be described as ability to have influence on a different variable which is dependent variable (Polit, 2001). In this research, independent variable includes low self-esteem, introvert, and shy. Dependent variable is self-loneliness.
We able to determine the addiction on smartphones of UMSKAL’s students is affect by feeling lonely. Low self-esteem, introvert, and shy as independent variable and self-loneliness as dependent variable which can be describe that low self-esteem is the factor will lead to self-loneliness and will increase the addiction of UMSKAL student on smartphones.
3.3 POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
There were 200 respondents from University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus students which were filled in the questionnaires. This method was chosen since this technique enables the researcher to control the representativeness of the sample. Respondents were requested to pick the choice that most depict their level of understanding in the questionnaire which includes strongly agreed, agreed, neutral, disagreed, and strongly disagreed. These 200 responses were acknowledged and utilized as a part of the data analysis. Their cooperation and interest were deliberate, and, in this way, it prompts no response inclination.
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
The completed 200 sets of questionnaires were inputted and analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). SPSS is a full characteristic data analysis package. It is intended for the sole reason for managing large sets or multiple data. It is equipped for decreasing mistakes speeds up the work of researchers to produce better reports with less error. SPSS is a general programming which is particularly utilized for statistical data analysis with an efficient data management. The range choices for SPSS are wide which makes analyzing statistical data and create tables, charts, and graphs easier. SPSS is created to separate the outputs from the data (Blunch, 2013).
Multiple regression models will be generated using the SPSS. Multiple regression models are the most general form of regression analysis which translates the connection between one dependent variable with at least two of the independent variables. The various regression models were used because the models allow the consideration of a larger number of elements to get into a better estimate which in turn will result in a better decision made.
The equation that clarifies how the dependent variable y identified to the independent variables x1, x2, . . . xp and the formula is given as follows:
where:
b0, b1, b2, … , bp are the parameters, and e is a random variable called the error term.

CONCLUSION
The research conduct to study about the smartphone addiction and its relationship with loneliness among the students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus. The aim of this study is to give a solution on how to prevent loneliness and smartphone addiction among the students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus. The issue of this study is, it is hard to find respondents that are willing to answer the questionnaires given correctly. They are simply tick the answers just to finish answering the set of questionnaires given. This research study is using a questionnaire for the research method and were going to be analyse using Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS). Multiple regression model is chosen to be the research techniques which it will translate the connection between one dependent variable with at least two of the independent variables.
The expected outcome of this study is to identify what is the main reason people getting lonely and becoming a smartphone addict. Further, this study will be contributing for the researcher itself, for the future researcher, academicians and the students of University Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus.