center161925 Assessing the Role of School Management Committee

center161925
Assessing the Role of School Management Committee (SMC) On Government Primary School’s Performance in Bangladesh
By
Md. Mosaddek Hossain
MPPG 6th Batch
ID No: 1612865085
August 2018

center9525
Assessing the Role of School Management Committee (SMC) On Government Primary School’s Performance in Bangladesh
By
Md. Mosaddek Hossain
MPPG 6th Batch
ID No: 1612865085
Supervisor
Dr. M. Mahfuzul Haque
Adjunct Faculty Member
Master in Public Policy and Governance Program (MPPG)

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Thesis submitted to the
Public Policy and Governance (PPG) Program
in partial fulfillment for the award of
Master in Public Policy and Governance (MPPG)
August 2018

Dedicated to
My late parents whom I feel in every step of life
Declaration
I declare that the dissertation entitled “Assessing the Role of School Management Committee (SMC) On Government Primary School’s Performance in Bangladesh” submitted to the PPG Program of North South University, Bangladesh for the Degree of Master in Public Policy and Governance (MPPG) is an original work of mine. No part of it, in any form, has been copied from other sources without acknowledgement or submitted to any other university or institute for any degree or diploma. Views and expressions of the thesis bear the responsibility of mine with the exclusion of PPG for any errors and omissions to it.

s
-1905036195000 15/08/2018
Signature with Date
Full Name: Md. Mosaddek Hossain
ID No: 1612865085.

Acknowledgement
Before anything else, I would like to thank almighty Allah for giving me the ability to
complete the degree of two years Masters in Public Policy and Governance. I would like to thank and express my sincere and heartiest gratitude to my Supervisor Dr. M. Mahfuzul Haque, adjunct faculty member of North South University for extending his full support and indispensable direction from initial stage to the end of the thesis writing. It would not be possible for me to complete this study without his continuous encouragement and valuable comments.

I would like to express my profound indebtedness to Dr. Salahuddin M. Aminuzzaman Professor and Adviser PPG program, Sk. Tawfique M Haque, Professor and Director of PPG Program of department of Political Science and Sociology , North South University, Bangladesh, Professor Dr. Ishtiak Jamil, for his consistent cooperation, constructive comments and suggestions; I owe my sincere and deepest gratitude to them for their guidance, suggestion and contribution during my study period and proposal defending. I am also indebted to my teachers Dr. Rizwan Khair, Dr. Shakil Ahmed for their valuable suggestions and comments at different stages of my thesis work.

I give my special thanks to the officials of directorate of primary education, for their experience sharing and active participation during my interview. I am also indebted to the headmasters, SMC chairmen and members, UNOs, UEOs, AUEOs, Upazilla Chairmen of the concerned schools and Upazillas. I also greatly appreciate my family members for their moral supports and sacrifice.

May the Almighty Allah bless all of them abundantly who greatly contributed to the
accomplishment of this thesis work.

Md. Mosaddek Hossain
ID No: 1612865085, MPPG 6th Batch
North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Abstract
Primary education generally includes the early grades of education from kindergarten to fifth grade or those years spent with in classroom and with teacher. The main purpose of primary education is to give children a strong foundation in the basics of general curriculum, with an emphasis on reading and numeracy. In general, primary education consists of five or eight years of schooling started at the age of five or six, although this varies among and sometimes within countries.

A school management committee is a group of elected members responsible for managing and overseeing the activities of a primary school, and to provide it with community support. School management committees have a pivotal role in the implementation of the Government’s Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP3).
Qualitative research method is used for this research. Primary data collected through in-depth interviews with different officials & FGDs with SMC members. Secondary sources of data : Different official web-sites , newspapers and other publications, school registrars. Study area: 06 Govt. primary schools of 03 upazillas. Sample Size = 21 (In-depth Interview) & 06 FGDs.

There are lots of factors and indicators related with primary school’s performance. These are universally determined. In Bangladesh the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) has also set different indicators to measure school’s performance. Among them here I have considered the following indicators as dependent variables: Dropout & Absenteeism, Pass rate in PSC exam, Enrolment rate, Infrastructure, Extracurricular Activities etc. My independent variable is role of SMC.
School Management Committee (SMC) plays an important role by engaging local people in the educational and development activities of primary schools. School management committee (SMC) plays a very important role in determining the goals and strategic plans of the schools. They also create a link between the local communities and the schools. They act as a bridge between them. The SMC also plays vital role in the school as both leaders and decision makers. Improving the role of SMC is inevitable for improving performance of primary school.
Considering the importance of the SMC, the objectives of this study are to assess the role of SMC in improving the performance of Govt. primary schools in Bangladesh. The study will be conducted in two SMCs in Dhamrai Upazila under Dhaka district, in two SMCs in Dhunat Upazila under Bogra district and two SMCs on Dhaka metropolitan city. Only Government primary school will be considered.
The study indicates that the SMCs of primary schools have a high potential of improving performance of primary schools in Bangladesh. But the SMCs in rural areas are not functioning well. Many of the SMC members did not receive training on their roles and responsibilities. Most of the SMC members basically guardians members and education patron members in the rural areas didn’t complete SSC. Community participation in the form of donation in the schools located in municipality areas are satisfactory. But in the rural areas school these are insignificant. The findings of the study reveal that SMC members do not visit home of drop out or irregular students to address their problems. In order to make effective of the SMC, provision for separate evaluation method should be made. Punishment and incentive should be applied for poor and good performance of SMC respectively. Frequent visit and inspection by education officers to primary schools in remote area should be undertaken for increasing the effectiveness of SMCs. Schools where SMC has good relations with the teachers perform better results than those with poor or below average relations. The conclusions of the study: that school management committees (SMCs) are important in increasing performance in their schools.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgement———————————————————————————-v
Abstract———————————————————————————————-vi-vii
List of Tables—————————————————————————————–xii
List of Figures—————————————————————————————-xiii
List of Abbreviations——————————————————————————-xiv
1. Chapter One: Introduction——————————————————————5-11

1.1 Background of the Study—————————————————————–5-6
1.2 Problem Statement———————————————————————–6-7
1.3 Objective of the Study———————————————————————7
1.4 Research Questions————————————————————————-7
1.5 Significance of the Study——————————————————————8
1.6 Scope of the Study————————————————————————-8-9
1.7 Limitations of the Study——————————————————————–9
1.8 Methodological Overview—————————————————————–9
1.9 Structure of the Research————————————————————–10-11
1.10 Conclusion———————————————————————————–11

2. Chapter Two: Literature Review———————————————————12-20

2.1 Introduction———————————————————————————12
2.2 Problems of Primary Education Sector in Bangladesh—————————-13
2.3 Major challenges in the Primary Education Sector——————————13-15
2.4 Literature Review on SMC in Bangladesh—————————————–15-16
2.5 Literature Review on SMC in Abroad———————————————–16-18
2.6 Duties and responsibilities of SMC————————————————–18-19
2.7 Research Gap——————————————————————————-19
2.8 Conclusion——————————————————————————–19-20
3. Research Methodology——————————————————————–21-24

3.1 Introduction———————————————————————————21
3.2 Methods Used—————————————————————————21-22
3.3 Content Analysis————————————————————————–22
3.4 Sample size———————————————————————————22
3.5 Sample Area——————————————————————————–22
3.6 Data Analysis——————————————————————————-23
3.9 Duration of Data Collection————————————————————23
3.10 Challenges in data collection——————————————————–23
3.11 Conclusion——————————————————————————23-24
4. Theoretical & Analytical Framework—————————————————25-29

4.1 Introduction———————————————————————————25
4.2 Theoretical Framework—————————————————————-25-28
4.3 Analytical Framework———————————————————————29
4.4 Conclusion———————————————————————————–29
5. Primary Education in Bangladesh——————————————————-30-40
5.1 Introduction——————————————————————————–30-32
5.2 Primary Education————————————————————————-32-33
5.3 Primary Education in Bangladesh——————————————————–33
5.4 Management System of Education in Bangladesh———————————–34
5.5 State of Different Streams of Primary Education———————————–34-35
5.6 Early Childhood and Pre-School Education——————————————–36
5.7 Government Primary School (GPS)—————————————————-36-37
5.8 Madrasah Education in Bangladesh—————————————————–37
5.9 Kindergarten School———————————————————————–37-38
5.10 English Medium Schools——————————————————————38
5.11 Pre-cadet School—————————————————————————-38
5.12 NGOs Schools——————————————————————————–38
5.13 Primary Education Development Programme————————————-38-39
5.14 Reforming of Primary Education———————————————————39
5.16 Conclusion———————————————————————————-39-40
6. Data Presentation and Analysis——————————————————-
6.1 Introduction———————————————————————————–37
6.2 Factors related to primary school’s performance———————————-38-39
6.3 Interview & FGD Analysis (Some Quotes)——————————————–39-40
6.4 Profile of the Respondents————————————————————–40-46
6.5 Findings and Analysis———————————————————————46-47
6.6 Conclusion————————————————————————————47
7. Findings and Conclusion—————————————————————–
7.1 Introduction———————————————————————————48
7.2 Dependent variables (Government Primary School’s Performance)———-48
7.3 Independent variables (Role of SMC)————————————————-48
7.4 Research Questions and Findings—————————————————-49-50
7.5 Conclusion———————————————————————————–50
References————————————————————————————–51-53
Annexure—————————————————————————————-54-62
List of Tables
Table 1: Educational Structure of Bangladesh———————————————-28
Table 2: State of Primary Education Institutions——————————————–31
Table 3: Enrolment in Pre-primary Education, 2010 & 2011—————————-32
Table 4: Primary Education Development Programme———————————–35
Table 5: Primary School’s Performance Indicators—————————————-38
Table 6: Respondent’s Profile—————————————————————-40-41
Table 7: Statistics of Pathantola Model Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)————41
Table 8: Statistics of Huzuritola Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)————————-42
Table 9: Statistics of Goshaibari Govt. Primary School (Dhunat) —————————–43
Table 10: Statistics of Rupnagar Govt. Primary School (Dhunat——————————44
Table 11: Statistics of Shere Bangla Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-13)———————45
Table 12: Statistics of Senpara Porbota Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-10)———-46
List of Figures
Figure 1: Analytical Framework—————————————————————-25
Figure 2: Organizational Structure of Primary Education——————————–30
Figure 3: Primary Education Enrolment Rate 2005-2010 (%)—————————33
Abbreviations
SMC: School Management Committee
PEDP: Primary Education Development Programme
DPE: Directorate of Primary Education
RTM: Research, Training and Management International
GoB: Government of Bangladesh
PTA: Parents Teachers Association
UNO: Upazilla Nirbahi Officer
UEO: Upazilla Education Officer
AUEO: Assistant Upazilla Education Officer
TEO: Thana Education Officer
ATEO: Assistant Thana Education Officer
JS: Joint Secretary
SLIP: School level Improvement Plan
MDG: Millennium Development Goal
SDG: Sustainable Development Goal
NGO: Non Government Organization
PSC: Primary School Certificate
ASPR: Annual Sector Performance Report
GPS: Government Primary School
RNGPS: Recently Nationalized Government Primary School
Chapter One
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study:
Primary education means education for children aged 6-10 years in Bangladesh according Government. According to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG), all children aged six years to attain free primary education or elementary training in all relevant curriculum areas decided by the concerned authority. Six years is considered the standard age for enrollment in Primary education. It is the basic necessity of a man. It is a foundation of modern society and also necessary for democratic government. In this modern world of science and commerce, it is necessary that every citizen should be able to take an intelligent and informed interest in what is going on all around. Primary education is the minimum education that provides the proper knowledge so that the citizen can exercise his voting right judiciously.

According to the article-17 of the constitution of Bangladesh (Free and compulsory education) The State shall adopt effective measures for the purpose of “establishing a uniform, mass oriented and universal system of education and extending free and compulsory education to all children to such stage as may be determined by law.” So primary education is free and compulsory in our country.

The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered. The system is highly subsidized. The government of our country operates many schools in the primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels. It also subsidizes parts of the funding for many private schools in the country.

Government has achieved many successes during the past decade, major improvements are still needed in order for all children to receive the benefit of quality education. The major challenges include: poor quality of education; high drop out rates; promotion of equity and accessing education; decentralization of education administration; and special needs education.
Management is the process to coordinate the activities of others in order to achieve predetermined organizational goals. Management comprises of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, leading and controlling. It is the engagement of one or more people or entities for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. School management committees (SMCs) play a very important role in determining the goals and strategic plans of the schools. This ultimately helps to achieve high academic performance. School Management Committees also acquire both human and material resources. These resources are very vital aspects in teaching and learning activities. They also create a link between the local communities and the schools. They act as a bridge between them. Thus they are enhancing conducive atmosphere for learning (Dean, 1995). The SMCs help to enforce discipline in children and teachers which is a key factor to better academic performance.

1.2 Problem Statement:
In theory, SMC has total management control over primary schools in Bangladesh though the real picture is somewhat different. SMC creates a way so that local community members and parents can be an effective part of school management. During SMC meetings various problems facing the school can be discussed. Many problems related to community and institution can be resolved. The problem of their role on academic performance arises when PTA (Parent Teachers Association) and SMC meetings are irregular (Chaudhury et al., 2006). In that case, it is not possible to communicate the issues affecting performance as well as resolving problems like teacher absenteeism, drop out rate and many more. For Bangladesh, Ahmed and Nath (2005) found that SMCs were not able to exercise their authority in some special areas. It is noticed that SMCs often were made up of people without sufficient background in education management. They were elected owing to personal relationship with head teachers and elected local political leaders. Moreover, there is some dissatisfaction with the way of their functioning. In some instances, there are resources constrain to carry out their designated responsibilities. Sometimes they are dominated by head teachers and local political leaders.
The SMCs are not functional in remote and char areas. Moreover most of the SMC members are doing nothing to prevent drop out and increase enrolment. Most of the SMC members play negligible role in monitoring and supervision of school activities. A vast majority of local government representatives have little role to play as they are not members of SMC, but who are members of the SMC had not received any training on their role (Research, Training and Management (RTM) International Dhaka, UNICEF, 2009).
So, the research problem is what significant role the SMCs can play in the improvement of academic performance in Govt. primary schools of Bangladesh and whether they have really any significant role.
1.3 Objective of the Study:
Role of SMCs in schools’ performance is so crucial now than ever. The Constitutional provision of Bangladesh that “Free and compulsory education to all” has made it almost impossible for government to solely bear the responsibility of financing and managing education. Communities are, therefore, required to be involved if the present levels of quality are to be improved and SMC is a form of community involvement.
The basic objective or purpose of the study, therefore, is to explore the effects of community participation i.e. SMC on school performance.
In this regard, the study will focus on the following:
To assess the role of SMC on Govt. primary school’s performance in Bangladesh.

To determine the challenges faced by SMC on performing their role.
1.4 Research Questions:
To achieve the research objective, the following research question have been addressed:
What role SMC plays in Govt. primary schools’ performance in Bangladesh ?
What are the challenges faced by SMC on performing their role?
1.5 Significance of the Study:
Community participation has a very high potential on school’s performance. It has significance in generating community ownership of schools, democracy in school governance, and accountability of teachers, trust and overall performance of schools in various ways. Especially where the level of participation is high, the performance might be better. Thus the study would help highlight the current relationships that exist between schools and management communities in the area. Also, it would provide useful insights into the roles of SMCs and the challenges faced by SMCs in educational development in local rural level of Bangladesh. Moreover, the study would serve as basis for intervention programs to policy makers and stakeholders in education. Finally, conclusions and findings from the study will serve as a useful base for further research in the area. It will also enrich the existing literature in the area.

1.6 Scope of the Study:
The study will be confined in two SMCs in Dhamrai Upazilla under Dhaka district, in two SMCs in Dhunat Upazilla under Bogra district and two SMCs in Dhaka metropolitan city. Only Government primary school will be considered in these areas. SMCs Chairman, SMCs members, parents, Head Teachers, Assistant Teachers, Local Government members will be interviewed with different sets of questionnaire. Upazilla Chairman, Upazilla Nirbahi Officer, Upazilla Education Officer, local elite will also be interviewed with another set of questionnaire. The scope of the study is to get an idea about the current situation of the role of the SMCs.
The research will be covered the following important aspects of the role of the SMCs which include:
Educational and occupational status of SMC members.

Training of SMC members about their duties and role .

SMC meetings and attendance of SMC members in those meetings.

Teachers and students attendance in schools.

Child Survey and enrolment.

Parents Teachers Association (PTA) and mother assembly.

School level Improvement Plan (SLIP) and action plan for school development.

PSC (Primary School Completion) examination results.

Dropout Rate and primary education level completion rate.
Visit and Inspection by UEO and AUEO in his areas of concerned schools.
1.7 Limitations of the Study:
Like every research this study has some limitations. Because of time constraint only some selective SMCs of three Upazillas have covered for this study. Even only Government primary school is considered for the study. During interview the teachers/SMCs members may not respond spontaneously. Their apprehension was like their views might cause harm themselves and their senior officials such as Education Officials, Upazilla Nirbahi Officer (UNO) and public representatives. The study will be interviewed forty respondents from SMC members of six primary schools because of time constraint. Despite all the limitations the findings of the study will definitely help the policy makers to draw conclusion and suggest some policy options regarding the role of SMCs of primary schools. These will be immensely used for improving performance of primary schools in Bangladesh.
1.8 Methodological Overview:
The study will be undertaken only qualitative method combining of survey, case study and interview along with observation to accomplish the research objective.
Primary data will be generated from interviews of the SMCs Chairman, SMCs members, parents, Head Teachers, Assistant Teachers, Local Government members, Upazilla Chairman, Upazilla Nirblahi Officer, Upazilla Education Officer, local elite in the two Upazillas. Survey may be carried out to know the perceptions of SMCs role of the 20 respondents (students and parents) in different schools through a questionnaire and in-depth analysis. Respondents will be both male and female. For secondary data, books, research papers, articles, journals, websites be studied to review the existing literatures on primary education sector of Bangladesh.
Structure of the Research:
The present study is divided into seven main chapters.
Chapter One: Introduction- The first chapter contains Background of the Study, Statement of the Research Problem, Objectives and Significance of the study, Scopes and Limitations of the research, Research questions, and Methodology.
Chapter Two: Literature review- The second chapter deals with existing literatures on the role of SMCs in improving performance of primary schools in the context of Bangladesh and other parts of the world, the problems and policy of primary education sector and other literatures related to primary education sector in Bangladesh, The role of SMCs in primary schools of Bangladesh have been described..
Chapter Three: Research Methodology- The third chapter incorporates the discussion on the methodology, data collection tools and analyzing techniques.
Chapter Four: Theoretical and Analytical Framework- In this chapter concept of the theory used in this study is discussed. Also their relation has been shown through analytical framework and how to relate those using data in guidance of theoretical framework are shown in this chapter.
Chapter Five: Primary Education in Bangladesh- This chapter deals with importance of primary education, education structure in Bangladesh, different types of primary education in Bangladesh, Government initiative in primary education, Primary education development programme (PEDP) in Banbladesh etc.

Chapter Six: Data Presenation and Analysis- This chapter analyzes data collected from the study areas on what role School Management Committees (SMCs)) are playing in improving performance of primary schools.

Chapter Seven: Findings and Conclusion – This chapter discusses the important information from field survey and data analysis. Based on data analysis and discussion in previous chapters, this final chapter attempts to discuss the research findings and way forward with concluding remarks.

Conclusion:
Education sector is very important for any country. Primary education is very important for Bangladesh, it is the basis of all future education. It will ensure a middle income country, it will also materialize the present Government target to make ‘Digital Bangladesh’ by 2021.

This chapter gives an idea of the research problem and discusses thoroughly why it is important to investigate. It also tries to provide the scope and limitations of the study. Finally, it gives an overview of the methodology used in this study and also the structure of the research.
Chapter Two
Literature Review
2.1 Introduction:
This chapter sheds light on available literatures on the role of SMCs in improving performance of primary schools in the context of Bangladesh and other parts of the world. This chapter reviews the existing literatures on the role of SMCs in improving performance of primary schools in Bangladesh. It also collects useful and relevant information, ideas and concepts regarding SMCs. This chapter reveals the education policy of Bangladesh and other literatures related to education sector.

Several studies have been found on the role of SMCs in foreign countries and in our country. All literature has admitted the importance role of SMCs for improving performance of primary schools in Bangladesh.
Significant progress has been made in increasing equitable access in education (NER: 98.7 percent; girls: 99.4 percent, boys: 97.2 percent), reduction of dropouts, improvement in completion of the cycle, and implementation of a number of quality enhancement measures in primary education. Bangladesh has already achieved gender parity in primary and secondary enrolment. Initiatives have been taken to introduce pre-school education to prepare the children for formal schooling.

The government is in the process of implementing a comprehensive National Education Policy (2010) to achieve its objectives. The Constitution of Bangladesh has provision for free and compulsory primary education. The challenge under MDG 2 include attaining the targets of primary education completion rate and the adult literacy rate. A large part of physically and mentally challenged children remain excluded of the schooling system. The quality of education is also a challenge at the primary and higher levels. There are some problems in primary education sector in Bangladesh:
2.2 Problems of Primary Education Sector in Bangladesh:
According to Article-17 of our Constitution, all the children of Bangladesh are supposed to receive full free education up to secondary level. But in reality, it is not so, especially for children from poorer households in rural areas. Recent survey done by BRAC reveals that poor parents have to pay bribe at every step of their child’s schooling. Such corrupt practice of extorting money from poor parents prevails among about half of the government schools in the country. (The Daily Star May 9, 2014). Bangladesh has one of the largest primary education systems in the world, according to the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE). There are a total of 37,672 government primary schools in the country with an estimated 10.7 million primary school aged children (6 to10 years). DPE figures also show that at present, a total of 6,300 primary schools around the country do not have a headmaster. The minimum international standard for teacher- student ratio is 30: 1 but in Bangladesh there is one teacher for every 53 students.

2.3 Major challenges in the Primary Education Sector:
The Access, Dropout and Equity Issue:
The enrolment rate is not satisfactory in case of the poor. It is alarming in case of the children living in the urban slum. About five million children are out school. Due to poverty, either they did not enroll in school or dropped out early. Although there was a notable decline in repetition rates in recent years, they are still quite high. Another major problem is the low transition rates across various levels of education. The dropout rate in primary education stood at 21.4 percent in 2013. The high repetition and low transition rates raise concerns about the low levels of learning. The SDG report shows that enrolment rate in developing countries has reached about 91 percent, but still 57 million children are out of education.
Gender Discrimination:
Gender discrimination is also a problem in our education system. Though it is not acute in urban areas, this is a common scenario in our rural areas. Gender disparity increases in continuously in secondary and tertiary level. In higher education, just 40% of the enrolled students are female. Many family keep girls out of schools for the belief that they do not need education. Many girls are given marriage at an early age, they have to leave schools after primary level. Especially in the rural areas, girls are bound to stay at home to do household works and take care of their younger siblings. This problem is getting worse if the family is poor. Out of 103 million people do not have basic literacy and 60 percent of them are women (According to the SDG report).
The Quality Issues:
The following are some among the quality issues:
Teacher Capacity:
Teachers have not adequate training to teach, sometimes inadequate for quality teaching. Though the number of training the teachers are getting is increasing, still there is long way to go. The minimum qualification for female teachers to become primary school teacher has been raised to the HSC from SSC, for male it is graduation from HSC.
Teacher Absenteeism and Tardiness:
It is clear from various studies that about 13-17 teachers remain absent, and 30 percent are tardy. These two problems of teacher absenteeism and tardiness prevent the quality learning atmosphere and it affects the performance of the school.
Inappropriateness of Curricula:
There are three tier of education systems in Bangladesh (Bangla, English, and Madrasas). Their curricula are different except the basic subjects. There also exists inequality in performance among them. Also the curricula and textbooks are often inadequate for the set goals in many disciplines. In addition to deficiencies in teaching quality.
Poor Physical Facilities:
The physical infrastructure is very poor in rural areas, particularly in remote, coastal, haor and char areas. They are far below the minimum acceptable criteria for appropriate learning environment for achieving the quality with equity goals. This is facility is even worse for the girls which is a hindrance to their attendance. The National Hygiene Baseline Survey 2014 found that a mere 6 percent of schools have provided any sort of menstrual hygiene session for female students, mostly in urban secondary schools. The survey also reported that only 11 percent of schools had a separate toilet for girls with both soap and water available, and 3 percent had any facility in the toilets to dispose of sanitary products. So this limitation affects the overall attendance of girls in schools. Ministry of primary and Mass Education has identified that in Bangladesh there are 1500 villages which lack in primary schools. These villages, with a population above 2000 and no schools within a 2 kilometer radius.

Poor Budget Allocation in Education Sector:
Bangladesh spends less than 3 percent of its GDP on the education sector. The budgetary allocation for education in our country is not adequate. It is very much less than the developed countries, even than compared with those of other South Asian and developing countries that put education at the top of the policy agenda.

Development vision, goals, objectives and targets for the 7th FYP (2015-16 to 2019-20) in primary education are:
1) Improve the Teaching Learning process in schools.

2) Ensure participation and reduce disparity.

3) Ensure Decentralization and enhance effectiveness.

4) Establish Effective Planning and Management.

2.4 Literature Review on SMC in Bangladesh:
Haq (1996) examines the status of community participation and the factors which may contribute to the more active participation of community in primary education in Bangladesh. Data for the study were collected through personal interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) with parents, teachers, local opinion leaders and government officers involved in school management. The study selected a sample of 180 parents, 36 community leaders, 36 school level implementers (Head Teachers, SMC/PTA members and Taluka Education Officers) from six districts of Bangladesh. The main sampling unit selected was the school. The 18 primary schools were selected on the basis of their geographic and residential (urban/rural) location. He identified the importance of community participation, positive role of school management committee and parents teacher association on school performance. He argued that where the community participation is significant, there the problems associated with the school is less. It was also recommended by him that that wider level community participation could be enhanced by a wide range of socio-cultural activities and sports.
Rashid and Salam (1999) studied two Village Development Committees (VDCs) in villages Pahankucha and Gudaraia of Bangladesh. The aim of this program was to have various hygiene practices in rural community. Besides that there were aim to make people aware of the benefits of sending their children to school, plantation, clean environment, various income generating activities and drawbacks of the dowry system and women oppression. The spontaneous participation of the targeted community as a whole is a pre-requisite for the successful implementation of the development program. So the community participation is necessary for the implementation of any target. Hence the role of SMC is very much worthy for the performance of school.
Mamun (IGS, Brac 2014) revealed that SMC is an important tool for local people to get involved with the activities of school and to express their opinions about the performance of the school. SMC provide a bridge between the school and community to become an effective part of school management. To strengthen primary school governance, there is no alternative but to substantially improve the performance of SMC or to increase of the effectiveness of SMC. Hence we can say that definitely SMC has role in school’s performance.
2.5 Literature Review on SMC in Abroad:
Eldah et al. (2004) explored community schools in Kenya and role of community in funding and managing these schools. The authors have emphasized that the community schools play an important role in providing alternative channels for students enrolled in non-formal education to join the formal education system. The study revealed that these schools are constantly expanding their contribution to the achievement of the goal of basic education for all in the country, despite the many challenges facing them. Dropout rates in these were low. Some of these schools offered lunch to students, which helped to keep them in school.
Tom-Miura, Allison (2004) in her Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles on “Engaging Communities in the Planning of New Urban Public Schools” examines how school districts and communities can work together for site selection and better construction of school building. This study explores the effective community participation on school building construction. In the long run, it will positively affect the school’s performance.

Beyene, Y. et al. (2005) conducted a study on “stimulating community participation in primary schools” to know a) why does community participation in Ethiopian schools need to be stimulated?; b.) how does community participation impact school quality? and c.) what are the characteristics of a community that make its members more willing to participate in schools? Study believed that the community participation had a positive impact on the quality of education in Ethiopia. Most of the community members wanted to get involved in the school activities and were stimulated and mobilized.
The International City/County Management Association (2008) in its special edition IQ Report brings forth that the community-oriented schools in US are generally more sustainable because these schools encourage broad community involvement in school facility planning and provide high-quality education.

Parajuli, Mahesh Nath (2007) in his study on People’s Participation in School Governance in Nepal found that each studied village had a School management Committee (SMC). But in many cases people, particularly women and low caste, did not know its existence. People are not much informed about who runs or manages the school or they think that teachers run or mange the school. Even those who have heard about the SMC, many did not know their expected roles.

Nayak, P.M. (2009) in his book on Community Participation in the Universalisation of Primary Education emphasizes that people’s direct participation in the management of primary education is felt indispensable and inevitable for materializing long cherished goal of universalisation of primary education. Specific efforts in various forms have been launched to revitalize the school-community relationships that can be gainfully channelized for quantitative as well as qualitative improvement of primary education in the country.

2.6 Duties and responsibilities of SMC:
According to the circular no 688, November 15, 2012 The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, The People’s Republic of Bangladesh, the responsibility and duties of the School Management Committee (SMC) includes the following important aspects:
Submitting report to the education officer regarding management of primary education, attendance of students, the responsibility, avoiding punishment of students.

Approval of annual school expenditure.

Resisting corporeal punishments of students.

Collection of local resources for development of the school and ensuring community participation for the development of the school.

Preparation of school level improvement plan (SLIP) and Action plan for school development.

Implementation of inclusive education through ensuring arrival of all students under the catchment area.

Implementation of pre primary education.

Ensuring enrollment and attendance of all children in school and taking arrangements for reducing dropout from school.

Supervision and ensuring quality construction, reconstruction and expansion of the school.

School management committee as a project implementation committee can repair of school up to one lack BDT.

Implementation of second opportunity of primary education under the project of non formal education.

Cooperation on training and selection of teachers.

Cooperation and adoption of necessary steps on continuing primary education during disaster.

Ensuring presence of teachers, holding meeting regularly, necessary steps of quality education in primary school.

Informing the problems of schools to education officer.

Ensuring textbook distribution and other education materials to the student’s timely and cooperation on implementation of co-curricular activities and annual child survey.

Cooperation on arranging PTA (Parents and Teachers Association) and mother assembly.

2.7 Research Gap:
There are lots of research done on community participation as school management committee and parent-teacher association around the world. But in Bangladesh there is very limited research done so far. These researches are done by NGO (BRAC) and donor organizations (UNICEF). But these researches are mainly on rural schools. In this regard my research is different because I have chosen only government primary schools located both in rural and urban areas. I have chosen two schools of Dhamrai Upazila under Dhaka districts which is near of the capital of our country. Two schools from Dhunat Upazila under Bogra district which is a flood affected and river eroded area. Also two schools in Dhaka metropolitan city. It is hope that it will provide me a comparative study.

2.8 Conclusion:
It is evident from the overview of the research studies that although community participation in the processes of educational change and reform has been acknowledged as important world over but so far active community participation in school performance remains a distant dream. Most studies conducted have considered the importance of community participation in school management and performance without a doubt. These studies also accept the fact that socio-economic and cultural constraints like ignorance, illiteracy, poverty, patriarchy and gender-based stereotypes of the community members continue to act as impeding factors towards achieving a more inclusive and equitable school education.

Chapter Three
Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction:
A research needs some methodology to follow which reveals that how researcher is going to achieve his/her objectives of the related study. To systemically solve the research problem and to make it understand scientifically a research methodology should be followed. This chapter aims to present and justify all the tools and techniques used for the research. The research methodology used in the study is described in this chapter. The geographical area where the study was conducted, the study design and the population and sampling method are described in this chapter. The instrument used to collect the data, including methods implemented to maintain validity and reliability of the instrument, are also described in this chapter. The research shall be mostly designed such manner that it provides explanation of events by exploring the factors those influence the dependent variable.

There are three types of research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed approach. Qualitative and quantitative approach are mainly used to examine and understand the opinions of the respondents on social problems which make generalization about the problem; and examine the relation among the variables used in research to test theories, respectively, while both are considered in using mixed approach (Creswell, 2008).
3.2 Methods Used:
In the current study, only qualitative research method approach is conducted. Qualitative data is collected through questionnaire survey. Content analysis, interview and case study method followed for collecting qualitative data. The collected data has been analyzed to address research objectives and research questions. Qulitative method is used for in in-depth understanding from different angles of SMCs. In this study for qualitative data interview technique is used. Upazila chairman, Upazila Nirbahi Officer, Upazila Education Officers, Local elite isinterviewed for collecting information from the Field survey
3.3 Content Analysis:
According to Aminuzzaman (1991) “Content analysis method critically and objectively reviews the published or printed facts, figures, opinions, observations, generalizations in the light of its content value” Content analysis is used to gather secondary data. It provides useful deep insight about the research topic.. Secondary data is collected from different relevant publications, dissertations, books, journal, articles, reports, government publications, rules regulations and acts and websites to understand the functions of the SMC. The schools meeting register, student and teacher attendance records, PTA (Parents Teachers Association), Mother Assembly registers and other records is directly reviewed for collecting data.

3.4 Sample Size:
A total number of 21 (Twenty one) people is taken as respondents in my research. So the sample size is 21 persons. Among them, 8 will be director, depty director, assistant director and research officer. The rest 13 are respondents are 3 Upazila Education Officer(One from each upazilla) and 10 Assistant Upazila Education officers . I have conducted 6 FGds on six SMCs of different schools of three upazillas. SMC members those were selected from six schools as SMC chairpersons, SMC members, parents, Head teachers, Assistant teachers, Local government members.

3.5 Sample Area:
The study is confined in two SMCs in Dhamrai Upazila under Dhaka district, in two SMCs in Dhunat Upazila under Bogra district and two SMcs in Dhaka metropolitan city. Only Government primary school is considered in these areas. I have chosen two schools of Dhamrai Upazila under Dhaka districts which is near of the capital of our country. Also two schools from Dhunat Upazila under Bogra district which is a flood affected and river eroded area. Also two schools located in Mirpur area of Dhaka city. It is hope that it provide me a comparative study. I may also find whether distance have any effect on the performance of SMC in school.

3.6 Data Analysis:
The collected data is processed and analyzed using spreadsheet analysis software like Microsoft excel. Simple mathematical tools like tabulation, some charts, graphs percentage, frequency is used to present data in a graphic manner.
3.7 Duration of Data Collection:
The duration of data collection was for about 1(one) month starting from 23 July to 22 August 2017. I have visited two government primary schools from each of the two Upzilas- Dhamrai under Dhaka district, Dhunat under Bogra district and Mirpur under Dhaka city.

3.8 Challenges in Data collection:
Data collection procedure in this study is associated with some challenges like every research. Undoubtedly ethical matter is a sensitive issue. Other than that, it is found that people specially the stakeholders bear different perception in same question. Moreover, some respondents instantly may return the filled-up questionnaire and some others may took long time. To some people it is not very important to talk about the issue, so they show indifference to be interviewed. It took time for an in-depth interview. In case of that, busy people will not be interested to answer properly. The SMCs are not functional in remote and char areas. During interview the teachers/SMCs members may not respond spontaneously. Their apprehension will be like their views might cause harm themselves and their senior officials such as Education Officials, Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) and public representatives.
3.9 Conclusion:
This chapter has introduced about all the methods and techniques that has been used to prepare the research. It describes the research methodology of the research, data collection methods, sample of the population etc. There are two sources will be used for the collection of data: primary and secondary sources. To collect the primary data, four techniques will be used: Questionnaire survey, case study, in-depth interview and observation and for secondary data, content analysis technique will be used. The questions will be structured and unstructured so that the unstructured questions minimize the limitations of structured questionnaires for thorough understanding of views. As the data size is very small, this research did not use any specialized statistical software rather it will use MS word, MS excel. As there was time constraints so only 40 respondents were chosen for the current study.

Chapter Four
Theoretical and Analytical Framework
4.1 Introduction:
Theory plays an important role in social science research. According to Aminuzzaman, theory explains the relationships, causality and dependency of certain variables. It also predicts the possible direction or momentum of those variables under study. Theory helps us to draw predictive, causative and conclusive judgments towards a broad generalization (Aminuzzaman, 2011: 12).

This chapter describes the framework for analysis in my research. In this study theoretical as well as analytical framework will be used. The theoretical framework is developed based on the study of literature. Theoretical framework is used as explanatory tool to assess the relationship of the factors which are influencing the role of SMCs which affects the performance of schools. Through Analytical framework, a logical approach is built to explain the relationship of the factors on the basis of theoretical framework.

4.2 Theoretical Framework:
4.2.1 System Theory:
Systems theory is an interdisciplinary theory that deals with the systems which is complex in nature, society, and science. It is a framework by which one can investigate and/or describe any group of objects that work together to produce some result.

Organizations are formed to achieve certain purposes, difficult or impossible for individuals to achieve. Organizations are social inventions to achieve certain purposes. According to Cummings (1980) in effect organizations are social structures (formal arrangement of people and group) and processes (behavior and interactions between people and groups). System theory looks organization as a dynamic entity, it is not static in nature. An organization and its environment is also dynamic. Organizational effectiveness, an organization’s capacity to achieve its goals is a function of the similarity or fit between people, process, structure and environment (Freidlander: 1971; Lorch: 1975; Miles & Snow: 1978 cited by Beer: 1980). Sometimes there is failure in organizational efforts to identify a problem which come from an incomplete understanding of the multiple causes of a problem. An incomplete diagnosis of the problem then leads to an incomplete action plan. This result in incomplete achievement and the organization purposes fail. Planning and implementation requires understanding of different aspects of social complex of a problem. If we want to realize the role SMCs play in improving performance of primary schools, then it requires understanding of its complexity from each dimension as organizations.

Applying systems theory to organizations leads to following general characteristics (Beer, 1980):
I. Organizations are composed of several components or parts which are in interaction with one another while at the same time part of an identifiable whole. These components may be people, process, structure and culture. Existing systems in external environment where these components has relations and work together, then organization success results.

II. Organizations interact with an external environment from where they get resource, input, information, assistance. External environment is the social environment in which an organization operates. Legislations, government regulations, and relevant policies are the environment which affects the organization. It is clear that changes in environment directly affect the structure and function of the organization. It recognizes mutual relation of personnel, impact of environment on organizational structure and function. It also realizes the affect of outside stakeholders on the organization.

III. There is feedback mechanisms and information flow between organization and environment. These are inter-departmental meetings, coordination mechanisms etc. Cummings (1980) considers other organizations as critical part of the environment of an organization. He emphasizes on having a mechanism appropriate to inter organizational relations.

According to system theory we can say that school management committee is also an social entity and organization. Its main objective to achieve its goals depends on the similarity or fit between people, process, structure and environment it works.

4.2.2 Role Theory:
Role theory is a perspective in sociology and in social psychology that considers most of everyday activity to be the acting out of socially defined categories (e.g., mother, manager, teacher). Each role is a set of rights, duties, expectations, norms and behaviors that a person has to face and fulfill.

According to the Role Theory (Goffman, 1959), human behavior is guided by expectation held both by the individual and by other people around him. The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform in their daily lives. It continues to explain that individuals have and manage many roles. These roles specify what goals should be pursued, what tasks must be accomplished and what performances are required in a given situation. This theory contends that there are specific roles that a group or individual must perform in order for the organization to achieve its goals. But when role expectations are low or mixed, then this may lead to role conflict, role confusion and role ambiguity.

Similarly SMC may experience role conflict and role confusion since they are not expected to interfere with the running of school. They are school managers who should manage the school towards academic excellence. The SMCs also experience role ambiguity that may result from lack of understanding about the rights, privileges and obligations that a person has for doing the job. When people fail to get a clear understanding of their rights, privileges and obligations role ambiguity emerges in an organization.

The SMCs role in management does not clearly show how their activities in school support performance, which is the core business of the primary school. According to the Goffman’s theory, where role conflict and role ambiguity exist, objective, quality, commitment are likely to decline. This explains the scenario where the SMCs, though legal entities has role in school management which is a pre-requisite for an excellent school academic performance.

4.2.3 Organization Theory:
“Organizations are social entities that are goal-oriented. They are designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and are linked to the external environment” (Daft, 2004).

Organizational theory studies organizations to identify the patterns and structures they use to solve problems, maximize efficiency and productivity, and meet the expectations of stakeholders. Organizational theory then uses these patterns to formulate normative theories of how organizations function best. Therefore, organizational theory can be used in order to learn the best ways to run an organization or identify organizations that are managed in such a way that they are likely to be successful.

Community Organization is one of the primary methods of social work. It deals with intervention in the communities to solve the community problems. As a method of social work community organization can solve the problems of many people in the community through their collective involvement.

Community based organization are formed to provide community support and solve community problems. School management committee is definitely a social organization which provides community support to school and solve various problems related to school performance. SMC has role which is a independent variable that are based on various factors. These factors definitely have impact on school’s performance that are assessed based on some factors. Here I shall use Organization theory to develop my analytical Framework.

4.3 Analytical Framework:
Dependent Independent
Variables Variable
4818380641350017056101651000
-257175193040Government Primary Schools’ Performance
00Government Primary Schools’ Performance
42291019431000832485198120Dropout & Absenteeism
00Dropout & Absenteeism

3124200105410008324851931035Infrastructure
00Infrastructure
8324852613660Extracurricular Activities
00Extracurricular Activities
832485511810Pass Rate in PSC Exam
00Pass Rate in PSC Exam

3124200120650004487545120650Role of SMC
00Role of SMC

832485263525Enrolment Rate
00Enrolment Rate

31242002032000031242006985000
486600524257000312420013398500
45161208255i) Activity
ii)Meeting
iii) Motiva-tion
00i) Activity
ii)Meeting
iii) Motiva-tion

Figure 1: Analytical Framework
4.4 Conclusion:
Theoretical framework provides the conceptual framework of the thesis. It has relationship with the analytical framework. Based on analytical framework, the research questionnaire are developed to do research work.

Chapter Five
Primary Education in Bangladesh
5.1 Introduction:
This study focuses upon Primary education in Bangladesh. The Constitution of Bangladesh envisions the provision of free and compulsory primary education for all eligible children (Article 17 (a) (b) (c)). The official schooling age for primary education is 6 – 10 years. The government has the major responsibility of primary education catering to about 80% children (Government of Bangladesh GoB 2016). In addition, the needs of the very poor are largely provided by the non-government organisations (NGOs) through non-formal primary education.
Among these different kinds of schools, the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) and its attached body – Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) are responsible for four types of formal primary schools and Ministry of Education (MoE) sees to some primary schools likely ibtedaye madrasahs and primary schools attached to high schools and madrashas. Some other schools including kindergarten, and nonregistered and non-government schools with large enrollment operate outside government institutional framework. Here it is reasonable to assume that different types of schools and involvement of different institutions produce unequal outcomes. We argue that this problem is related to the absence of a common policy framework to ensure consolidation, coordination, and flexibility in the primary education system.
However, a number of acts and executive order were passed by successive governments in order to deliver primary education to the masses. They include Primary Schools (Taking over) Act 1974, the Primary Education Act 1981, the Executive Order 1983, and the Compulsory Primary Education Act 1990. Among these laws and the order, the Acts of 1974 and 1990 have impacted primary education system much. As per the Act of 1974 the state took over the responsibility of provision of primary education on its shoulder by nationalising 36,165 in 1973 and 1507 more schools at different times (Kulkarni 2013; Billah 2012).The 1990 Act empowered the government to undertake legal and administrative measures to implement “compulsory” primary education of all eligible children in the country. As a result, the whole country was brought under compulsory primary education in 1993. On the other hand, the 1974 Act brought the primary school system under a centralised administration from the previous district based management. Under the 2013 nationalisation scheme, Government has taken a policy decision not to allow establishment of any new primary school by private initiative and not consider it to be eligible for government funding at a later date. Thus, the Government will now assess the need for setting up new primary schools and set up schools on its own initiative and issue appropriate approvals of schools to be set up (Kulkarni 2013).

The educational structure of Bangladesh is more of complex in nature in comparison to the other countries of the world. The existing educational structure of Bangladesh is given in the table 1.

Table 1: Educational Structure of Bangladesh
Age Grade 26+ 25+ XX PhD (Engr) PhD (Med) 24+ XIX PhD Post MBBS PhD (Edn) 23+ XVIII M Phil M Phil (Med) 22+ XVII MA/MSc/MBA LLM MBBS
/BDS MSc(Engr) MSc(Agr) MBA M.Ed/ MA (Edn) MFA MA(LSc) 21+ XVI BA / BSc (Hon) Masters (Prel) LLB (Hon) BSc Engr
BSc Agr
BSc Text
BSc Leath
BSc Engr BSc Tech BBA Bed BP Ed Dip(LSc) Kamil
20+ XV Bachelor (Pass) BFA Diploma in Nursing 19+ XIV Diploma (Engr) Fazil
18+ XIII 17+ XII Secondary Examination HSC HSC Voca C in Ed C in Agr Dipl in Comm Alim
16+ XI Higher Secondary Edn 15+ X Examination SSC Trade Cert / SSC Voca Artisan Course eg Ceramics Dakhil
14+ IX Secondary Edn 13+ VIII Junior Secondary Edn 12+ VII 11+ VI 10+ V Primary Edn Ebtidai
9+ IV 8+ III 7+ II 6+ I 5+ Pre-Primary Edn
4+ 3+ 5.2 Primary Education:
Primary education generally includes the early grades of education from kindergarten to fifth grade or those years spent with in classroom and with teacher. The main purpose of primary education is to give children a strong foundation in the basics of general curriculum, with an emphasis on reading and numeracy. In general, primary education consists of five or eight years of schooling started at the age of five or six, although this varies among and sometimes within countries. UNESCO has set ‘Education For All’ (EFA) as one of the millennium development goals. Most of the countries have committed to achieve universal enrolment in primary education by 2015. Bangladesh has also made firm commitment and has taken good number of approaches to achieve the goal. Government has circulated National Education policy 2010. The aim and objectives of education are clearly stated in that policy. The aim and objectives of education are shown at Annex A.

5.3 Primary Education in Bangladesh:
Article 17 of the constitution of Bangladesh, which relates to education, specifies that State shall adopt effective measures for the purpose of (a) establishing a uniform, mass-oriented and universal system of education and extending free and compulsory education to all children to such stage as may be determined by law, (b) relating education to the needs of society and producing properly trained and motivated citizens to serve those needs; (c) removing illiteracy within such time as may be determined by the law (World data on Education, 2011). In line with World Declaration on Education for All roadmap, Bangladesh pursued a comprehensive policy in the provision of access to quality education for primary school aged children including girls through numerous interventions. Government already has enacted Compulsory Primary Education Act 1990. The Act was implemented in 1992 on a limited scale and has been extended throughout the country since 1993. The Act underlined that: No child be deprived of education for lack of teacher, learning materials and adequate space and No child be subject to disparities of access to primary education arising from gender, income, family, cultural or ethnic differences and geographic remoteness. Children of age 6-10 years are supposed to be the students of primary schools, but in reality, the age-range is much wider (Ahmed, 2011, p. 2).

5.4 Management System of Education in Bangladesh:
Bangladesh runs one of the largest primary education administrations in the world. The management of the education system falls under two ministries – the Ministry of Education (MoE) responsible for secondary, vocational and tertiary education and the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME), responsible for primary education. The existing organizational structure of primary education is shown below in figure 2.

Figure 2: Organizational Structure of Primary Education
162623525654000162623518796000102235075565PMED
00PMED

130683088265002575560149225CPEIMU
00CPEIMU

1022350257175DPE
00DPE
National level
16262359779000162623546355002618740140970NAPE
00NAPE

131572010223500298069018859500
-1250958128000
1022350163195DD Office
00DD Office

10572751427480U/TEO
00U/TEO
-908051427480Upazila level
00Upazila level
-47625814705District level
00District level
162623515652750030060909702800016262358667750013157201668780001315720970280001315720365760001686560730250027736801375410URC
00URC
2773680720090PTI
00PTI
-125095184150000-125095127190500-1250955302250010223502039620Schools
00Schools
1057275720090DPEO
00DPEO
Division level
(Source: DPE, Mirpur)
PMED-Primary and Mass Education; DPE- Directorate of Primary Education; CPEIMU- Compulsory Primary Education Implementation and Monitoring Unit; NAPE- National Academy for Primary Education; DD Offices- Deputy Directors Offices; DPEO- District Primary Education Officer; PTI- Primary Training Institute; U/TEO- Upazilla/ Thana Education Officer; URC- Upazilla Resource Centre
5.5 State of Different Streams of Primary Education:
One or two year pre-primary education is imparted in private schools/kindergartens, and informally in government primary schools for six months. Five-year compulsory primary education is imparted mainly in government and non-government primary schools. In metropolitan cities, however, government and non-government primary schools cater to the educational needs only for the poorer sections of the people, as the better-off families usually send their children to Private English Medium schools, Kindergarten school. Ebtedayee Madrasah is also very vital streams for providing primary education. There, however, exists a substantial number of Non Government Organizations (NGOs) run non-formal schools catering mainly for the drop-outs of the government and non-government primary schools. The state of primary education institutions are shown below in the table 2.
Table 2: State of Primary Education Institutions (Source: ASPR- 2016)
Type of schools No of schools Teachers
Total Students
Total
Formal schools managed by DPE
Government primary schools 37,672 2,01,900 10,687,349
Registered primary schools 20,168 73,211 38,38,932
Experimental schools 55 216 10,072
Community schools 3,133 9,972 5,08,862
Non-registered non-government primary schools 1,485 6,045 223295
Kindergarten 10,537 98,119 12,27,239
Formal schools and madrasahs-managed by MoE
Primary sections of secondary schools 1,494 21,292 5,06,183
Ebtedyee madrashs 2,062 10,059 3,09,479
Primary section of high madrashs 4,366 26,055 7,47,321
Non-formal schools-managed by NGO bureau
Other NGO schools 1,936 5,022 1,42,618
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) 4,390 4,096 1,49,852
Reaching Out-of-school Children (ROSC) 2,344 2,191 73,566
Non-formal schools-managed by social welfare
Shishu kallyan 70 211 7,731
Total 89,712 4,58,389 18,432,499
5.6 Early Childhood and Pre-School Education:
Primary education is preceded by pre-primary education. Pre-primary education is defined as the initial stage of organised instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. The learning outcomes— knowledge, skills and values of primary education are stronger when appropriate learning and development occur in the years preceding regular schooling. The aim, objectives and strategies of pre-primary education are stated in the National Education Policy 2010. The aim, objectives and strategies are given at Annex B. The government recognizes the value and demands for pre-schools. The enrolment rate in pre-primary education has been remarkably increased. The enrolment rate in pre-primary education is shown below in table 3.

Table 3: Enrolment in Pre-primary Education, 2010 & 2011
Type 2010 2011
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
GPS 320,707 314,226 634,933 614,828 594,460 1,209,288
RNGPS 130,936 129,655 260,591 168,669 167,871 336,540
Total 451,643 442,881 895,524 783,497 762,331 1,545,828
(Source: ASPR 2016)
5.7 Government Primary School (GPS):
There are ten streams of primary education that are recognized by the government. Although there are different categories of primary education yet government is the principal primary education provider. In 2011, out of 78,685 primary education institutions, 37,672 were government primary schools, 61% school going children enrolled in these government primary schools (ASPR 2011). The aim and objectives of primary education are given at Annex C. Government has increased the total volume of allocation of budget for education (Figure: 4). The impact of this allocation has resulted high enrolment from 2005 to 2010. The primary education enrolment rate is shown in figure 3.

Figure 3: Primary Education Enrolment Rate 2005-2010 (%)

(Source: PSC 2011)
5.8 Madrasah Education in Bangladesh:
Madrasah education system is a formal one, in addition to the general education stream and consists of a well established Islamic religion based education stream. At present Madrasah education is an integral part of national education system. As of now Ebtedayee have been recognized as equivalent to Primary education. Ebtedayee Madrasahs also enroll children of age 6+ to 10+ . This curriculum resembles that of general primary education where religion education replaces the Qur’an, Arabic and Fikah. Most of the Madrasahs are located in rural area.

5.9 Kindergarten School:
It is very difficult to have appropriate statistics on kindergarten school from authentic source like government. The curriculum, syllabus, examination system and other matters are determined by their own way. There are two mediums of instruction of teaching in kindergarten schools- English medium and Bangla medium. Most of the kindergarten schools are located in the urban area.

5.10 English Medium Schools:
Though the number of English medium schools is not too big yet they follow the foreign curriculum and method of teaching. The English medium school claims that they ensure quality education as they abide by the foreign system and instructions. Only the very well-off family children have the opportunity to get admitted to these schools. The admission fee, tuition fee and price of the books are so high that these schools are out of reach for the middle and lower class people.

5.11 Pre-cadet School:
Pre-cadet concept comes from the high achievement of the cadet colleges in the country. The initial approach was to run these schools from pre-primary to primary level in line with the cadet college concept. Class VII is entry point for Cadet College and ends in class XII. But, there is no similarity in management, textbooks curricula and method of teaching. Government has no control over these pre-cadet schools.

5.12 NGOs Schools:
NGOs continue literacy and adult education activities on a small scale. NGOs have made a major contribution in introducing innovative non-formal approaches in primary education to serve on a substantial scale to the children who have been left behind by the formal system. A special role of NGOs can be in providing a second chance for primary education or its equivalent to those who will continue to miss out or drop out from primary education in spite of the efforts to improve primary education performance.
5.13 Primary Education Development Programme:
Bangladesh government has taken bold step to achieve the target in primary education as Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP). With respect to that target, Bangladesh has made three primary education developments programme. Each programme has a distinct set of components or outcome area as shown below in table 4.

Table 4: Primary Education Development Programme
Items Time line Actions
PEDP I 1997-2003 Enrolment, Completion, Quality and Monitoring
PEDP II 2004-2011 Organizational development and capacity building; Improved quality in schools and classroom; Infrastructure development; and equitable access to quality schooling.

PEDP III 2012-2016 Learning outcomes; Participation; Regional and other disparities; decentralization; and increased effectiveness of budget allocation.

(Source: ASPR 2011)
5.14 Reforming of Primary Education:
According to National Education Policy 2010, up to Class VIII will be considered as primary education. By 2018, this plan will be implemented. This new education policy aimed to bring down the student teacher ratio by 1:30. In 2013, in every Upazilla, 02 Primary schools will explore primary education up to class VIII.

5.15 Conclusion:
The study of this chapter has given an insight of the most complicated education system of Bangladesh. The existing primary education system has multi-dimensional curricula, method of teaching. Moreover, different types of primary education system have made the social class conflict a common issue in society. The constitution has made the direction for establishing a uniform, mass- oriented and universal system of primary education. Various reasons like budgetary allocation, food price hike, socio-economic and religious tradition, geographic location etc. have a major impact on primary education system of Bangladesh. Operational and structural reformation should involve the beneficiaries of primary education in managing school activities for achieving universal primary education. The country is well on the track to achieve maximum number of the targets of Primary Education Development Programme. So far, Bangladesh has made remarkable success in primary education. Furthermore, the government should attempt to take strong measures for unification of primary education. Otherwise, the aim of achieving universal primary education might be obscured.

Chapter Six
Data Presenation and Analysis
6.1 Introduction:
This chapter explores the data found in the field and scrutinize the data to reveal the crucial findings. These findings give a scope to discuss the definition of primary school’s performance with regard to present context. It also examines the factors that affect primary school’s performance in Bangladesh. This study has been conducted depending on the analytical framework and guided by the theoretical framework. Therefore, the findings are discussed here based on the variables found in the analytical framework. The study has been conducted mainly both in the rural and urban areas of Bangladesh.

The dependent variable of this study is Govt. primary school’s performance. The indicators I have chosen as: Dropout & Absenteeism, Pass Rate in PSC Exam, Enrolment Rate, Infrastructure, Extracurricular Activities. The independent variable is role of SMC and the indicators are : Activity, Meeting, Motivation etc. One of the research questions of this study was asked to every one: What do you mean by primary school’s performance. They have said primary school’s performance as all round development of students, academic results, teachers dedication and care, extra-curricular activities, strict student enrolment, reduction in dropout rate, reputation as an ideal school, role of SMC, leadership of the headmaster, teachers students presence in the school , etc. Some indicators were common, while some have some extra indicators that are related to school’s performance. The Department of Primary Education (DPE) has indicated a total of 109 activities in 11 fields. The schools are graded between 0-4 Scale. Four types of Grading: A (80-100%), B (60-79%), C (40-59%) & D (Below 40%) is used by DPE.

6.2 Factors related to primary school’s performance:
Table 5: Primary School’s Performance Indicators
1. Pass rate in the PSC exam 11. Updated records, registrars, accounts (SLIP)
2. Avg. Attendance rate in classroom (95%) 12. Child survey of catchment area
3. Enrollment rate (100%) 13. Regular Staff meeting, PTA, Mother assembly, Uthan boithok, Community engagement (As per rules)
4. Drop out rate (0-5%) 14.Pre-primary classrooms decoration
5. Discipline & punctuality 15. Multimedia classrooms facility
6. Proper dress code 16. Members of “Shikkhok Batayan”
7. SMC activity & meeting 17. Land, field, boundary, school building, classrooms, library, furniture, pure drinking water facility, toilets & wash blocks, flower garden
8. Repetition rate (0-1%) 18. Mid-day meal facility
9. Leadership quality of Headmaster 19. Cub scouting, Student council election, Little doctor activities
10. Teacher-students ratio (Target 1:30) 20. Participation in national programs (sports & cultural activities), National day observation etc.
Grading (0-4 Scale). Four types of Grading: A (80-100%), B (60-79%), C (40-59%) & D (Below 40%)
These are delineated by the respondents according to the gravity of potential on secondary school performance. Most of the respondent told academic result is the number one indicator of primary school’s performance, because this is the most obvious and measurable learning outcome, this is also traditional belief that academic result is the benchmarking tool of school. One responded argued that academic result is the prime motto of any school and other factors like leadership of headmaster, active role of SMC, student quality, teaching quality affects positively or
negatively on primary school’s performance.

But the other respondents defined primary school’s performance as some other aspects, they rated teachers dedication and care are the second most important indicator of secondary school performance. If a school has quality teachers and they have dedication and care towards the school and towards the students that is a strong determinant of secondary primary school’ performance. Likewise above mentioned calibration of school performance indicators were rated
by majority of them.

6.3 Interview & FGD Analysis (Some Quotes):
“Article 17 of the constitution outlines the goal of education as one offering a mass oriented, universal, free and compulsory education to all children in Bangladesh. In line with this goal, the focus of PEDP3 is to establish an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh’s children from pre-primary through Grade 5 primary. Here the role of SMC is very important to achieve these goals. ” – Director of DPE
“In a word, SMC has definitely significant role in primary school. As an executive vice-chairman of the upazilla primary education committee, I always like sit with the SMC to monitor school’s performance. To implement the vision of present Govt. vision 2021 “Digital Bangladesh” is very much necessary to provide quality primary education to the children. SMC can play a great role here.” – UNO of Dhamrai.

“Training is necessary for SMC members mainly to make them aware of their roles and responsibilities. It is strongly recommended that, before of the end of PEDP3, SMC members will be provided training to ensure the effective preparation and implementation of SLIP and the introduction of decentralization reforms. ” – UEO of Dhunat.
“I have a good relation with the SMC chair. We work together, sincerely to improve the overall performance of our school.” – Headmaster of Shere Bangla Govt. primary school.

6.4 Profile of the Respndents:
Table 6: Respondents Profile
Category
Designation/Occupation
No. Methods
Officials Director Finance (JS of DPE)
01 In-depth Interview
Deputy Directors (SAS of DPE)
03 Assistant Directors
03 Research Officer
01 UEOs/TEOs (Upazilla/Thana Education Officers)
03 AUEOs/ATEOs
10 Total =
21 SMC
Members
(Schools)
Pathantola Model Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)
FGD (Total=06)
Huzuritola Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)
Goshaibari Govt. Primary School (Dhunat)
Rupnagar Govt. Primary School (Dhunat)
Shere Bangla Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-13)
Senpara Porbota Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-10)
Table 7: Statistics of Pathantola Model Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)
Year
School Performance 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Grade SMC Activity
Pathantola Model Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)
Dropout
5% 4% 3% 5% 2% A (Best & Model Govt. primary school in Dhamrai Upazilla)
Active
Absenteeism
5% 5% 3% 4% 2% Pass rate in the PSC exam
92% 93% 91% 93% 95% Enrolment rate
98% 98% 97% 99% 100% Infrastructure
development
Infrastructure is good, but need more classrooms. Well utilization of local funds & SLIP money
Extracurricular activities
Strongly participate in local and national level sports & cultural activities
Table 8: Statistics of Huzuritola Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)
Year
School Performance 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Grade SMC Activity
Huzuritola Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai)
Dropout
5% 5% 6% 6% 5% B (Impro-
Ving Continuously) Less Active
Absenteeism
5% 5% 4% 5% 4% Pass rate in the PSC exam
92% 93% 90% 92% 93% Enrolment rate
93% 95% 96% 94% 98% Infrastructure
development
Infrastructure is average, but need more money and local support to improve
Extracurricular activities
Participate in local level sports & cultural activities
Table 9: Statistics of Goshaibari Govt. Primary School (Dhunat)
Year
School Performance 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Grade SMC Activity
Goshaibari Govt. Primary School (Dhunat) Dropout
5% 6% 7% 5% 5% B (Impro-
Ving Continuously) Less Active
Absenteeism
5% 5% 6% 5% 4% Pass rate in the PSC exam
92% 93% 90% 93% 95% Enrolment rate
93% 94% 96% 95% 98% Infrastructure
development
Infrastructure is average, but need more money and local support to improve. Needs motivation.
Extracurricular activities
Participate in local level sports & cultural activities but not in national level
Table 10: Statistics of Rupnagar Govt. Primary School (Dhunat)
Year
School Performance 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Grade SMC Activity
Rupnagar Govt. Primary School (Dhunat) Dropout
15% 13% 11% 13% 14% C
Inactive
Absenteeism
14% 12% 11% 13% 10% Pass rate in the PSC exam
78% 76% 79% 75% 80% Enrolment rate
86% 87% 85% 88% 89% Infrastructure
development
Infrastructure is poor. No electricity, wash blocks, shortage of classrooms, little space to play, no boundary
Extracurricula-r activities
Do not participate in local level sports & cultural activities
Table 11: Statistics of Shere Bangla Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-13)
Year
School Performance 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Grade SMC Activity
Shere Bangla Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-13) Dropout
4% 3% 3% 1% 2% A (One of the best Govt. Primaryschools in Mirpur thana)
Active
Absenteeism
4% 3% 4% 3% 2% Pass rate in the PSC exam
94% 95% 92% 93% 95% Enrolment rate
98% 96% 98% 99% 100% Infrastructure
development
Infrastructure is good. New school building is under construction.
Extracurricular activities
Strongly participate in local national level sports & cultural activities
Table 12: Statistics of Senpara Porbota Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-10)
Year
School Performance 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Grade SMC Activity
Senpara Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-10) Dropout
5% 4% 4% 3% 2% A
Active
Absenteeism
5% 4% 5% 4% 3% Pass rate in the PSC exam
92% 93% 94% 93% 94% Enrolment rate
95% 94% 95% 96% 97% Infrastructure
development
Infrastructure is poor. No electricity, wash blocks, shortage of classrooms, little space to play, no boundary
Extracurricular activities
Do not participate in local level sports & cultural activities
6.5 Findings and Analysis:
From the above tables we see that where the SMC is active, the school is performing well. There is a positive relation between SMC and school performance. If the SMC performs its role properly, then the school’s performance improves. Or where the school’s performance is satisfactory, there the SMC is active, effective and vice versa. So the relation between them is proportionate. In my field visits and data collection and analysis, I have seen the strong relationship between role of SMC and Govt. primary school’s performance. So I can conclude that there is a relation between them and the relation is positive. So the improvement of one variable i.e. independent variable (Role of SMC) positively affects the performance of primary school which is a dependent variable measured by Dropout & Absenteeism, Pass Rate in PSC Exam, Enrolment Rate, Infrastructure, Extracurricular Activities.

6.6 Conclusion:
Bangladesh, as an independent and developing nation, has to maintain her political,
economic, social, and cultural relation with the rest of the globe through the quality
education system. But the overall proficiency of the primary education of the country has many scope for further development in line with the 7th five year plan and Bangladesh National Education Policy 2010.The primary school’s performance is a new idea to flourish with regard to quality education in Bangladesh. Most of the schools are not well performed although their pass rate is higher in the PSC examination. So this system requires to be revisited. A well performed school should have some other strong components and most importantly schools should be the place where a student can learn the kind of life skills and complete education to be better qualified and equipped for future life. This study has been carried out to extract the components of primary school’s Performance.

Chapter Seven
Findins and Conclusion
7.1 Introduction:
In this research, the prime objectives were to assess the role of SMC on primary school’s performance and to find out the challenges faced by SMC. Based on the theoretical review some variables were selected to test the interrelationship between dependent and independent variable. Based on these variables, the study developed some assumptions and tried to test their relationship as per the empirical analysis of data. For this, primary school’s performance is considered as dependent variable, and this dependent variable is to some extent explanatory because if any other constituents can be derived from the study other than the conventional notion developed in the past. And also to find out the most influential factors that affect primary school’s performance i.e. independent variable that is role of SMC.

7.2 Dependent variables (Government Primary School’s Performance):
7.2.1 Dropout and Absenteeism:
7.2.2 Pass Rate in PSC Exam:
7.2.3 Enrolment Rate:
7.2.4 Infrastructure:
7.2.5 Extracurricular Activities:
7.3 Independent Variable (Role of SMC):
7.3.1 Activity
7.3.2 Meeting
7.3.3 Motivation
It is seen that teachers quality, students quality, leadership role of headmaster, catchment area, reputation of the school, teacher-student ratio, active SMC, textbook based lesson have strong effect on primary school’s performance. A dedicated school leader and effective headmaster can change the school performance. The gap of teacher-student ratio must be reduced in order to get quality education and for further reinforcement teacher’s quality should be increased. To get out of this circle DPE is playing a great role recruit qualified teachers. In the rural government school, the authority have to struggle to earn money from the school, so they try to increase the number of the students rather than taking quality students.

7.4 Research Questions and Findinds:
Answer to the research question 1:
What role SMC plays in Govt. primary schools’ performance in Bangladesh ?
Ans: SMC Plays Positive Role in this respect. Active & effective SMC influences school’s Performance. The school’s performance depend on various factor i.e. teachers quality, students quality, leadership role of headmaster, catchment area, reputation of the school, teacher-student ratio, active SMC. So SMC is a component to improve school’s performance. There is strong relationship between them. The most influential factors that affect primary school’s performance i.e. independent variable that is role of SMC. Primary school’s performance is considered as dependent variable, and this dependent variable is affected by the independent variable that is role of SMC.

Answer to the research question 2:
What are the challenges faced by SMC on performing their role?
Ans: The challenges faced by SMC on performing their role are:
Fund Crisis & Fund Generation,
Limited power,
No Intensive,
&
Political Interference etc.

Fund is not adequate that is given by the government to run the activity of the school. Every school gets only 40,000 Taka as SLIP money for its improvement of infrastructure which is not enough. SMC has motive local elites and community to donate money which is challenge for them.

SMC has very limited power to exercise. They cannot take any action against any teachers. They just can recommend the local education officials to take any action against any teacher.

There is no intensive for the members of SMC. Even they have to spend their pocket money to arrange any meetings refreshment. Government does not allocate any money for them. They have to spend money while join in the meeting by their own. It demoralizes them.

Sometimes political interference disturbs the proper formation of SMC. A chairman continues more than two terms which is a violation of the rule. Local elites, political leaders and the administrations sometimes interfere in the matter which disturbs their function and activity. But this is not bad always. This sometimes help to mobilize resources. The local community can engage in school’s fund rising which helps a lot to do improvement work.

7.5: Conclusion:
A school management committee is a group of elected members responsible for managing and overseeing the activities of a primary school, and to provide it with community support. School management committees have a pivotal role in the implementation of the Government’s Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP3). School Management Committee (SMC) plays an important role by engaging local people in the educational and development activities of primary schools. School management committee (SMC) plays a very important role in determining the goals and strategic plans of the schools. They also create a link between the local communities and the schools. They act as a bridge between them. The SMC also plays vital role in the school as both leaders and decision makers. Improving the role of SMC is inevitable for improving performance of primary school.
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Annex-A: EDUCATION: AIM AND OBJECTIVES
To reflect the Constitutional guarantee at all levels of education and make learners aware of the freedom, sovereignty and integrity of Bangladesh;
To stimulate the intellectual and practical qualities of the learners so that moral, human, cultural, scientific and social values are established at personal and national levels;
To inspire the students with the spirit of our war of liberation and develop patriotism, nationalism and qualities of good citizens (i.e. sense of justice, non-communalism, dutifulness, awareness of human rights, cultivation of free thinking and discipline, love for honest living, the tolerance of corporate life, friendliness and perseverance);
To promote the continuity of national history, tradition and culture through an intergenerational process;
To foster creative and thinking faculties among the learners through a system of education that contains indigenous spirit and elements and which will lead to a life oriented development of knowledge of the learners;
To evolve an education process that is oriented to creativity, practicability and productivity to achieve advancement in the economic and social fields of the country; to create a scientific mindset of the students and to develop in them the qualities of leadership;
To remove socio-economic discrimination irrespective of race, religion and creed and to eradicate gender disparity; to develop non-communalism, friendliness, global fraternity, fellow-feeling and respect for human rights;
To create unhindered and equal opportunities of education for all as per learners’ talents and aptitudes, irrespective of geographical, social and economical situations to establish a society that is free from discrimination; to resist use of education as a commodity to reap profits;
To show tolerance for different ideologies for the development of a democratic culture and to help develop a life-oriented, realistic and positive outlook;
To ensure the marginal competencies of learners at each level so that they are discouraged from rote learning, rather use their own thoughtfulness, imagination and urge for curiosity;
To ensure skills of high standard at different areas and levels of education so that learners can successfully compete at the global context;
To attach substantial importance to information and communication technology (ICT) along with math, science and English in order to build up a digital Bangladesh based on knowledge-orientation and cultivation of ICT;
To put special emphasis on the extension of education; to give priority to primary and secondary education; to motivate the students to show dignity of labour; to enable students to acquire skills in vocational education to facilitate self employment, irrespective of levels of education;
To develop some uniform and basic ideas amongst all learners; to establish a sense of equal status amongst all citizens of the country to implement a uniform curriculum of certain basic subjects at the primary level schools of diverse delivery systems; to prescribe and ascertain the learning of some uniform textbooks to attain that; to initiate some method of teaching in some basic subjects at the secondary level to achieve similar objectives;
To ensure a creative, favorable and joyful environment for the students at the primary and secondary levels for their proper protection and congenial development;
To help students grow up with sound moral character through lessons from their respective religious teachings and moral sciences;
To ensure proper quality of education at each level and to correlate the competencies learnt at the earlier level (as per the aims and objectives of education) with the next one to consolidate the formations of knowledge and skills; to promote extension of such knowledge and skills; to enable the learners to acquire these skills; to motivate the people to participate in the educational process, at the primary, secondary and vocational levels, in particular to realize the objectives of education;
To build students as skilled human resources to fight the challenges of the world threatened by climate change and other natural disasters and to create in them a social awareness about environment;
To ensure quality of the higher education in all disciplines and motivate students in research and to create a congenial and necessary environment of research within the country through the cultivation of knowledge and sciences;
To ensure the proper context and situations in the education system at the higher level that facilitates ideal cultivation of learning;
To extend the use of information and communication technology ( ICT) instrumental in educational process at every level
To take special measures for the development of education of the backward classes of the country including the street-children;
To promote and develop the languages and cultures of the indigenous and small ethnic groups;
To ensure the education of the physically and mentally challenged learners;
To create a society free from the curse of illiteracy;
To initiate special measures to promote education in the areas identified as backward in education;
To ensure efficient and correct teaching of Bangla language;
To take necessary steps to create facilities of playground, sports, games and physical exercises in all educational institutions for the healthy growth of the physical and mental qualities of the learners;
To take various steps to foster hygienic awareness of the students;
To caution the students and make them aware of the dangers of taking
drugs or similar items.

(Source : National Education Policy 2010)
Annex-B: PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION- AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
Aims and Objectives:
Activities aimed at inspiring children to learn and to go to the school and cultivating their finer senses;
Grooming them to be tolerant to others and to infuse in them the ideas about discipline necessary for their subsequent formal education.

Strategies:
Teaching at pre-primary level will be delivered through pictures, colours, attractive and simple education materials, models, rhymes, songs, games and handiwork.

Teaching will be conducted in a pleasant environment characterized by love and care in appreciation of children’s spontaneous vigor, spirit and their natural inquisitive faculties and curiosity. The safety of the children will have to be ensured to resist any possible physical or mental tortures on them.

Posts for teachers and number of classrooms will be increased in every school to facilitate pre-primary schooling. But since this is an expensive endeavor and requires a long time-span, so the initiative will be implemented in phases.

This schooling will include the instructional programs of the mosques, temples, churches and pagodas presently being conducted by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, which seek to impart religious teachings with alphabetical knowledge and modern education with moral lessons.

(Source : National Education Policy 2010)
Annex-C: PRIMARY EDUCATION- AIMS, OBJECTIVES
Aims and Objectives:
To develop a curricula and textbooks imbued with the national spirit with a view to cultivate the humanistic values. Congenial and joyful environments need to be created in the schools to promote healthy physical and mental development of the children;
To initiate a uniform and mandatory syllabus for some basic subjects to be
taught in diverse types of schools delivering primary education;
To help the students inculcate moral and spiritual values like idea of justice, sense of duty, discipline and etiquettes, non-communalism, human rights, accommodative attitudes toward corporate living, curiosity, friendliness and perseverance, and to encourage them to acquire scientific, cultural and human values and to shun superstitions;
To ignite in them the spirit of our national liberation movement and encourage them with patriotism to dedicate themselves to nation-building;
To make them motivated and capable of pursuing higher education through ensuring the qualitatively adequate marginal skills at respective levels of studies; To achieve this, adequate number of quality teachers will be appointed. Besides, the development of physical infrastructure, favorable social ambience, competent pedagogy, warm teachers-students relationship and the respectable status of women have to be ensured.

To take effective steps to ensure the acquisition of essential knowledge, subject-based knowledge, life skills, attitudes, values and the sense of social awareness to meet their basic learning needs that will enable them to move ahead to the next level of education;
Pre-vocational education will be in place from Classes VI to VIII to develop
respect for manual labour and to give them some idea of vocational education.

To facilitate learning in the mother languages of the indigenous peoples
and small ethnic groups at the primary level of education;
To initiate special monitoring for primary education especially in the backward areas;
Equal opportunities have to be ensured for all kinds of disabled and underprivileged children.

(Source : National Education Policy 2010)
Annex- D: List of Respondents:
Category
Designation/Occupation
No.

Methods
Officials Director Finance (JS of DPE) 01 In-depth Interview
Deputy Directors (SAS of DPE) 03 Assistant Directors 03 Research Officer 01 UEOs/TEOs (Upazilla/Thana Education Officers) 03 AUEOs/ATEOs 10 Total = 21 SMC
Members
(Schools)
Pathantola Model Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai) FGD (Total=06)
Huzuritola Govt. Primary School (Dhamrai) Goshaibari Govt. Primary School (Dhunat) Rupnagar Govt. Primary School (Dhunat) Shere Bangla Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-13) Senpara Porbota Govt. Primary School (Mirpur-10) Annex- E: An Interview checklist for Officials (Director, Deputy Director, Assistant Director, Research Officer, Upazilla/Thana Education Officer, Assistant Upazilla/Thana Education Officer :
1. How do you define and measure primary school performance?
2. What are the factors that matter primary school performance? Please rank it
according to the importance?
3. What are the major challenges faced by SMCs?
4. What institutional capacity of DPE office is needed to ensure primary school’s performance?
6. What other factors also contribute to primary school’s performance?
7. Despite considerable progress in equity, completion and reduction in drop out in
primary education, performance is still yet to be acheived, what do you think?
8. How SMC can contribute significantly to school performance and quality education?
Annex- F:An Interview Checklist for FGD(SMC Members):
1. How do you define and measure primary school performance?
2. What are the factors that matter primary school performance? Please rank it
according to the importance?
3. What are the major challenges faced by SMCs?
4. What is the role of the President of SMC? How is the relation between the President of SMC and Head-Master?
5. What other factors also contribute to primary school’s performance?
6. Is the voting of the committee held regularly? When the last meeting was held?
7. Do you know the Govt. circular about the formation and performance of SMC?
8. How SMC can contribute significantly to school performance and quality education?
9. What matters are discussed in the meeting? Is performance is discussed in the meeting? Do you know about SLIP?
10. In the meeting equity, completion rate, presence and reduction in drop out is discussed? What is the role of SMC to improve them?
11. Who fix the agenda of the meeting? What is discussed in the meeting?
12. Is meeting (PTA, SMC) held regularly? When the last meeting was held? Are the minutes of the meeting is recorded and signed by the members regularly?
13. Are the resolution of the meeting be implemented properly?
14. Is the result of PSC and other exam discussed in the meeting? What is the role of SMC to improve them?
15. Is there any community support? What is the role of education officials and local administrations?
16. What is your opinion about SMC to increase the performance of primary school?

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