Business Research Project BRP 300 Bachelor of Business Administration BBA

Business Research Project
BRP 300

Bachelor of Business Administration
BBA (HONS)
Dissertation
Increase in Employee Absenteeism Rate in Housekeeping Department
@
Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa HotelFlic -en- Flac
Done by: Neha Rugnoo
Tutor: Vikash Rowthoo & Keshav Tohooloo
Date: 29.05.2018
Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.0 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc511668285 h 42.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc511668286 h 52.1Overview PAGEREF _Toc511668287 h 52.2Background PAGEREF _Toc511668288 h 52.3Justification of the Study PAGEREF _Toc511668289 h 62.4 Current Study PAGEREF _Toc511668290 h 82.4.1 Evidence PAGEREF _Toc511668291 h 82.5 Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc511668292 h 82.5.1 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc511668293 h 92.5.1.1 Research Question 1 PAGEREF _Toc511668294 h 92.5.1.2 Research Question 2 PAGEREF _Toc511668295 h 92.5.1.3 Research Question 3 PAGEREF _Toc511668296 h 92.6 Research Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc511668297 h 92.6.1 Research Hypothesis 1 PAGEREF _Toc511668298 h 92.6.2 Research Hypothesis 2 PAGEREF _Toc511668299 h 102.6.3 Research Hypothesis 3 PAGEREF _Toc511668300 h 102.7 Scope of the Study PAGEREF _Toc511668301 h 103.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc511668302 h 103.1 Overview PAGEREF _Toc511668303 h 103.2 Dependent Variable: Absenteeism Rate PAGEREF _Toc511668304 h 113.3 Job Satisfaction & Absenteeism Rate PAGEREF _Toc511668305 h 113.4 Lack of Staff Motivation & Absenteeism Rate PAGEREF _Toc511668306 h 133.5 Stress Factor & Absenteeism Rate PAGEREF _Toc511668307 h 143.6 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511668308 h 144.0 Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc511668309 h 154.1.0 Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc511668310 h 154.1.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc511668311 h 154.1.2 Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc511668312 h 154.2 Time Horizons PAGEREF _Toc511668313 h 174.3 Research Model Framework PAGEREF _Toc511668314 h 174.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc511668315 h 174.4.1 Research Question 1 PAGEREF _Toc511668316 h 174.4.2 Research Question 2 PAGEREF _Toc511668317 h 194.4.3 Research Question 3 PAGEREF _Toc511668318 h 204.5 Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc511668319 h 214.6 Location of the study PAGEREF _Toc511668320 h 214.7 Population & Participants PAGEREF _Toc511668321 h 214.8 Sampling Designs/ Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc511668322 h 214.8.1Sampling PAGEREF _Toc511668323 h 214.8.2 Sampling Designs PAGEREF _Toc511668324 h 224.8.3 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc511668325 h 224.9 Pilot Study PAGEREF _Toc511668326 h 224.10 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc511668327 h 235.0 Findings & Discussions PAGEREF _Toc511668328 h 235.1 Data Preparation PAGEREF _Toc511668329 h 235.1.1 Sample demographics and data screening PAGEREF _Toc511668330 h 235.1.2 Data entry and missing data PAGEREF _Toc511668331 h 265.2 Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc511668332 h 265.3 Research Question 1 (result & discussion) PAGEREF _Toc511668333 h 265.4 Research Question 2 PAGEREF _Toc511668334 h 265.5 Research Question 3 PAGEREF _Toc511668335 h 265.6 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511668336 h 266.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511668337 h 276.1 Summary of the outcomes PAGEREF _Toc511668338 h 276.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc511668339 h 276.3 Overall contributions PAGEREF _Toc511668340 h 286.4 Limitations PAGEREF _Toc511668341 h 286.5 Further research directions PAGEREF _Toc511668342 h 296.6 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511668343 h 297.0 Reference PAGEREF _Toc511668344 h 308.0 Appendices PAGEREF _Toc511668345 h 328.1 Appendix A: Total Number of Absences in the Housekeeping Department PAGEREF _Toc511668346 h 328.2 Appendix B: Employee Questionnaire in the Housekeeping Department PAGEREF _Toc511668347 h 328.3 Appendix C: Survey Questionnaire on Job Satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc511668348 h 388.4 Appendix D: Interview Questionnaire for Housekeeping Manager(s) PAGEREF _Toc511668349 h 43
1.0 Problem StatementDuring my investigation at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel, a five-star resort which is situated at Wolmar, on the West Coast of the Island at Flic-en-Flac, it has been found that there is an increase in the employee absenteeism rate in the Housekeeping Department over the past 3 years.
Introduction
Overview
Locke et al (2007, p.17) defines absenteeism as the lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a social expectation for the employee to be there. Absenteeism is a major problem that employers are faced everyday and it affects the hotel in some way although many do not suffer from the problem of absenteeism as much as others. Absenteeism is managed in a variety of ways in other different hotels, although it can be argued that the effects that absenteeism has on any given hotels are similar.
Background
Establishes in 1903, Taj Hotels Resort & Palaces is one of Asia’s largest and finest groups of hotels, comprising 98 hotels in 62 locations worldwide with an additional 17 international hotels. From world-renowned landmarks to modern business hotels, idyllic beach resorts to authentic Rajput Palaces, each Taj hotel offers warm hospitality, world-class service and modern luxury. Hospitality to which the resort’s entire team is entirely dedicated, including the personal butler who make sure everything is perfectly organized from the first to last minutes of the stay and the ladies of the Jiva Grande Spa, which, with a unique mixture of Ayurveda, meditation and massaging techniques is a must.
Taj Exotica Resort & Palace is found in the most exotic and relaxing locales of the world. The properties are defined by the privacy and intimacy they provide. The hotels are clearly differentiated by their product philosophy and service design. They are centered on high end accommodation, intimacy and an environment that allows its guest unrivalled comfort and privacy. They are defined by a sensibility of intimate design and by their varied and authentic culinary experiences, impeccable service and authentic Indian Spa sanctuaries. Taj has a 105-years history of luxury service and is dedicated to restoring his hotel to perfection. Over the hundred years, Taj Hotels Resort & Palaces keep refining its art of hospitality across the globe.
Taj Exotica Resort & Spa Mauritius, a new flagship of the prestigious Taj Hotels, Resorts & Palaces. Open in November 2004, this luxury hotel is located in Tamarin Bay at Wolmar, with its impossibly beautiful snow-white sandy beach and turquoise lagoon and is the first and only hotel on the island to opt for a 100% villa concept. After its renovations in January 2008 it has become Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa in February 2009.

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The Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa is a five- star resort, situated on the West Coast of the island at Flic-en-Flac a lively and beautiful village in the district of Black River. The 65 villa’s offers an unparalleled experience and is an idyllic hideaway for romantic holidays and a source for well-being and rejuvenation. Its exclusively private villa environment – some with views of the ocean others with lush garden views and each with its own plunge pool and ensuring an experience that is discreet and unique to each guest. The hotel offers impeccable service and all the essential amenities to invigorate travelers. To name a few of the hotel’s facilities, there are disabled facilities, 24hr room service, safety deposit boxes, shops, bicycle rental.

Our business services:
Conference room with all facilities for meeting needs: flip chart boards, LCD projector, motorized screen and slide projector. The board rooms can be combined or separated to accommodate groups of up to 40 people.
Business Centre with computers, free wireless Internet connection and printing facilities.

Justification of the Study
While conducting this research it has been found that there an increase in the employee absenteeism rate at the hotel in the housekeeping department. This is quite an alarming situation for the employers, managers and management, if this situation continues it will decrease the organizational growth, profitability and productivity of the hotel. Therefore, before the situation worsen and bring negative impact on the hotel the management team must adopt corrective measures and precautions, what can be done to reduce the employee absences from increasing and how to motivate the staff from being absent from their work.
Housekeeping is one of the largest departments in the hotel and it has a very important role in the functioning of the hotel operation. A housekeeper is responsible for maintaining cleanliness, maintenance and safe environment and also looks after the clients’ needs, demand, privacy and comfort. Housekeeping is an important part of guest satisfaction and experience. Housekeeping department is solely dependent on a customer satisfaction and customer reputation.
Customer satisfaction has been defined by Philip Kotler (Kotler et al 2013) says that it is predetermined by how the expectations of the customer are met. Customer satisfaction is directly connected to customers’ needs. The customer satisfaction in the hotel is mainly identified by the service and quality that is being provided. However, in the hotel, satisfaction is not only referred to a specific product or service; it is composed by a combination of various features. Therefore (Hill & Alexander 2006, 213), say that monitoring and assessing customer satisfaction is the paramount objective of any hotel.
(Kandampully et al. 2013, 53), state that nowadays, competition in the hotel industry is very strong and continues enhancing rapidly, which makes service, quality and customer satisfaction the key elements of the success.
Therefore, if a housekeeper is not doing their job properly, clients will not be satisfied and will complaint about the housekeeper; there will be a decrease in the customer satisfaction. With a great choice of hospitality organizations, from a very cheap hotel to fashionable and luxurious 5-star hotels customers do not have a necessity anymore to get back to the place where they have been dissatisfied. Therefore, (Riscinto-Kozub 2008, 40) says that hotels are forced to search for methods of exceeding customers’ expectations and providing unique services and experiences.

Customer reputation is also very important for the growth of the hotel. It is very important for the hotel management to find the best solutions for handling the reviews and comments of hotel that guests left on one of numerous social media channels. Hospitality industry faces numerous challenges concerning handling of the user generated content, especially on travel review sites and is trying to be actively involved in creating and maintaining its reputation. According to Trip Advisor:
93% of the people use online reviews when determining which hotel they want to stay at
53% of the people surveyed would not book a hotel that didn’t have online reviews
Therefore, the hotel management can also take advantage of the importance of reviews and online reputation. User generated content (UGC) such as reviews, have a major impact on a customer’s purchase decision. So, acquiring positive feedback from satisfied guests is now a priority for hotel and general managers. In this competitive environment of the hospitality industry, online reputation directly affects sales volume. Therefore, it is very important to have an effective hotel reputation management helps to secure a competitive advantage over the other hotels. Conversely, a poor online reputation could potentially lead to serious losses and loss of customers.

Thus, it is very important to have a strong housekeeping department in the hotel, for the guests’ health, safety and comfort, to provide the client a good, enriching experience from the first till last day of stay. Therefore, questionnaire has been designed as research method to target the employees to know more about the work problems and what causing an increase in the absenteeism rate in the housekeeping department.
2.4 Current Study
The current study of this research at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa is to find out what are the causes and factors that are causing an increase in the employee absenteeism rate. During the past three years the hotel has been facing with an increase in the employee absences in the housekeeping department which is quite alarming situation for the managers and if the situation continues it will decrease the productivity, organizational growth and profitability rate of the hotel. The study of this report will show the negative impact it will have and how it will affect the hotel and what solutions can be provided and recommended to reduce the employee absenteeism from increasing.
2.4.1 EvidenceThe table below shows the number of absences in the housekeeping department.

Total Number Of Absenteeism in the Housekeeping Dept
The Number of Staff in the Housekeeping Dept is 30
Month   2015 2016 2017
January 10 12 14
February 8 10 11
March 11 13 15
April 12 13 14
May 10 12 13
June 8 10 11
July 12 11 13
August 13 14 12
September 12 12 13
October 9 10 11
November 11 12 13
December 10 15 17
Total 126 144 157
2.5 Research Objectives
The purpose of doing this research is to know more about employee absenteeism rate at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa. Absenteeism Rate surveys can provide management with all required knowledge and tools to build positive employee relations and a positive work environment. To know more it is very important to use interview and questionnaire as methods of collecting data. The purpose of doing this research is to improve and to bring more ideas for development of the hotel, to identify the causes of absenteeism rate, to study the employee working conditions and to identify factors that motivate employees that can decrease the absenteeism rate.
2.5.1 Research QuestionsMain research question is to determine what the main causes are and factors of employee absenteeism rate which affecting productivity, profitability and organizational growth at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa, to find out the negative impact of employee absenteeism rate it has and to come up with solutions and to provide recommendations.
2.5.1.1 Research Question 1To determine what are the main causes of an increase in employee absenteeism rate at the hotel in the housekeeping department?
2.5.1.2 Research Question 2To find out the negative impact of employee absenteeism rate at the hotel it has on productivity, profitability and organizational growth?
2.5.1.3 Research Question 3To come up with solutions that can be done to reduce employee absenteeism rate and to provide recommendations?
2.6 Research Hypothesis2.6.1 Research Hypothesis 1H0: There is no relationship between an increase in employee absenteeism rate and job satisfaction.

H1: There is definite relationship between an increase in employee absenteeism rate and job satisfaction.
2.6.2 Research Hypothesis 2
H0: There is no relationship between an increase in employee absenteeism rate and lack of staff motivation.

H1: There is definite relationship between an increase in absenteeism rate and lack of staff motivation.

2.6.3 Research Hypothesis 3H0: There is no relationship between an increase in employee absenteeism rate and stress factor.

H1: There is definite relationship between an increase in employee absenteeism rate and stress factor.

2.7 Scope of the Study
The development of any organization depends on the regularity of employees. In this report, study was conducted on various levels to know the reasons of absenteeism in the organization. By looking at all the various reasons and factors causing employee absenteeism in the housekeeping department we can adopt corrective measures to decrease the absence of employees and increase productivity, profitability and organizational growth of the hotel.

3.0 Literature Review
3.1 Overview
Literature review has been used as a tool to identify the possible causes of absenteeism. Based on literature, four main variables have been identified and their sources have been highlighted below. The main purpose of the present study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant relationship between an increase in employee absenteeism rate, job satisfaction, lack of staff motivation and stress factor. Literature suggests that absenteeism is a major problem in many organizations, hence, the importance of focusing on this behavior within the hotel.

3.2 Dependent Variable: Absenteeism RateLocke et al (2007, p.17) defines absenteeism as the lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a social expectation for the employee to be there. Absenteeism is a major problem that employers are faced everyday and it affects the hotel in some way although many do not suffer from the problem of absenteeism as much as others. Absenteeism is managed in a variety of ways in other different hotels, although it can be argued that the effects that absenteeism has on any given hotels are similar.
3.3 Job Satisfaction & Absenteeism Rate
According to (Chadwick-Jones et al., 1982), absence from work is defined as non-attendance when attendance of employees for scheduled work. The majority of absences are generally attributed to sickness or incapacity, but there may be other reasons. (George & Jones 2002), stated that a number of researchers maintain that job satisfaction represents the primary cause of absenteeism and also it is one of the factors affecting an employee’s motivation to attend work.
According to Luthans (1995), research has generally revealed a consistent inverse relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism, i.e. when satisfaction is high, absenteeism tends to be low and when satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high. An employee might therefore be absent for various other reasons, than being dissatisfied with the job.
Many employees feel dissatisfied with their jobs at one point or another. Some employees leave their jobs for better opportunities, while others choose to stay. Employees with low job satisfaction can negatively affect a company because they typically lack motivation, perform poorly and possess negative attitudes. These symptoms can directly affect a hotel’s bottom line. Managers should understand the reasons why employees are unhappy at work.
Overworked & Underpaid
One of the primary reasons of job satisfaction is not paying well in the hotel. While salary isn’t always the motivator for happiness at work, employees who work long hours and still find themselves behind economically are frustrated and dissatisfied with their jobs. Employees with the lowest incomes are the most dissatisfied with their jobs.
Limited Career Growth ; Advancement
A lack of career growth and advancement is another reason why the workers are dissatisfied at their jobs. Employees who feel stuck in their job position are less motivated to maintain high productivity than those who do not. Workers feel valued when employers include them in their long-term plans and show their appreciation through promotions, rewards or remunerations. Employees who move up in their work in the hotel get promotions and receive compensation to reflect their title and responsibility changes usually commit themselves to the company for the long term.

Work and Life Balance
Another issue is that the hotel, fail to recognize the need for employees to maintain a healthy life and work balance are ultimately affecting their own productivity levels. Even if the hotel can’t offer salary increases, one way to improve job satisfaction is to create trade-offs for life and work balance. Instead of offering raises, they might consider incentives such as paid days off or flexible scheduling.

High Employee Turnover Rates
Low job satisfaction also creates high turnover rates with employees. Sooner or later, the employee is going to quit so that they can find a job they actually enjoy doing and with better opportunity. Due to all this, the hotel suffers from high turnover rates and unable to retain their qualified workers. It is up to the manager(s) to find a way to increase job satisfaction, particularly if the job is tough and the pay is low.

Poor Management
The management team plays an important role within the hotel. Managers are responsible for motivating employees, planning, organizing and controlling within the hotel. A key reason employees perform poorly in the workplace is poor management. Managers with poor leadership skills tend to offer little feedback on employees’ performances. Micromanaging and dictating to employees instead of motivating them can cause a decrease in employee productivity.
It is therefore important for managers to focus on employee absence as it can become extremely costly to organizations. According to Cole, 2002; Mason ; Griffin, 2003, the direct costs associated with absenteeism, there are also indirect costs such as hiring of casual staff, reduced productivity, turnover and potential loss in revenue. Besides Robinson (2002) further notes that the indirect costs of absenteeism can be up to three times higher than the direct costs of absenteeism. It therefore becomes vital that the hotel recognize the extent of this problem due to the high costs associated with continued unscheduled absences. Ericson (2001) maintains that organizations should look at ways in which they can accommodate the needs of their diverse workforce in order to attract and retain the best employees.
According to Aamodt (2007), there are many facets of job satisfaction, including pay, supervision, coworkers, work, and promotional opportunities. The biggest incentive on employee satisfaction is monetary; most employees are satisfied with their jobs or current positions when they feel that they are getting paid what they are worth. Along with getting paid for what they are worth, employees also want recognition for their hard work. Employees are the most satisfied, inspired, and motivated when they know that they are getting paid what they are worth and being recognized by their managers, coworkers, and so on, for a job well done.

3.4 Lack of Staff Motivation ; Absenteeism RateObasan Kehinde, 2011 stated that absenteeism may be caused by the employee’s inability to come to work; motivation to attend work is assumed a major factor determining how often an employee is absent. A drop in staff motivation can become contagious if the cause is not identified and addressed. Therefore, the management needs to be conscious of employee motivation, and that means being able to identify the factors that cause a lack of motivation in the workplace.
Rumors
The important thing to remember about rumors is that they are not always wrong. Some rumors have basis in fact, but that does not make them good for employee morale. An employee that hears a rumor that she may be laid off experiences an instant drop in motivation. To deal with the problem of rumors in the workplace, it is important for the management to share important information with the staff in a timely manner. This helps employees to feel confident that management will address rumors and encourages staff members to wait on information from them before acting on a rumor.

Inadequate Job Skills
Employees are motivated to succeed at jobs for which they feel prepared and properly trained. Before moving an employee into a position of greater responsibility or before allowing any changes to an employee’s job duties, be certain that employee has had the training needed to get started. Putting an employee in a position where she feels she has inadequate job skills will erode the employee’s confidence and stifle any motivation to succeed.

Poor leadership
Effective leadership is an essential factor in the motivation of your staff. If strong leadership is lacking or is negatively affecting the outlook of the team – certain employees may start to feel demoralized.  Therefore, the leader must have a flexible, inclusive approach to manage the team and be able to communicate clearly whilst instilling confidence and focus. If a particular team or individual is lacking motivation in the team, it may be due to a lack of good management.

3.5 Stress Factor & Absenteeism Rate
Worker stress can be defined as physiological or psychological reaction to an event that is perceived to be threatening. Riggio, 2013 p. 277 stated that negative stress or distress can cause stress related illness, and it affect absenteeism, turnover and work performance. Workplace stress appears to be the number one cause of staff absenteeism.

Work-related stress is a growing problem around the world that affects not only the health and well-being of employees, but also the productivity of organizations. Work-related stress arises where work demands of various types and combinations exceed the person’s capacity and capability to cope.

Work-related stress can be caused by various events. Therefore, employees’ in the housekeeping department might feel under pressure if the demands of their job such as hours or responsibilities are greater than they can comfortably manage. Other sources of work-related stress include conflict with co-workers or bosses, constant change, and threats to job security.
It is important for employers to recognize work-related stress as a significant health and safety issue. The management team in the hotel should take precautionary steps to ensure that employees are not subjected to unnecessary stress, namely; ensuring a safe working environment and make sure that everyone is properly trained for their job, which ultimately will reduced absences, staff turnover and increased productivity and have a greater job satisfaction.
3.6 Conclusion
To conclude we can say that absenteeism is a serious issue in the workplace and it is very important to avoid absenteeism rate from increasing at the hotel. Managers, employers and the management team must take corrective measures in order to prevent an employee from being absent from their work. Must encourage employees and provide regular feedback to employees. Job satisfaction, lack of motivation and stress factor is one of the main causes in the workplace to prevent an employee from coming to their work. All these factors, can lead to disastrous consequences of the hotel. When employees’ are de-motivated, lost interest in their work, not paying well, long hours of work and overloaded, they do not perform well and it started to decrease employee productivity. Employees do not give their best at the work which is not good and it is parallel with profitability and organizational growth. Clients saw that the employees not doing their work well, not fixing the problems immediately and they are having a bad experience they would not come back again next time. The hotel can lose their loyal customers as well, if the housekeeper is lagging behind, not attending to the clients demand and expectation they had when they will come holidaying in the hotel and not doing their work well. Therefore, in order to avoid these problems, employers must provide workplace incentives, counseling to keep a safe and healthy environment for the staff and the surrounding as well. In order to increase productivity, profitability and organizational growth, it is very important that employees come to their respective work. Employees are most important source of growth potential and innovation and must make them feel valued in the organization in order to retain the most talented employees. Employees are the biggest assets in the hotel and we as hotel we function on our employees capabilities to reach at the higher position in the hotel industry.
4.0 Research MethodologyBrynard and Hanekom (2006:36), maintain that research methodology focuses on the process of research and the decisions that the researcher has to make in order to execute the research project.

4.1.0 Research Approach
Before undertaking the research, it is important to know which type of data to collect how to collect and how to use them (Hitchcock and Hughes, 1995). Research can be classified as qualitative and quantitative methods that are used to collect data. Qualitative research is a techniques used to collect data in form of paragraph which contain emotions, sentiments and feeling of individuals. In quantitative research, data is collected that can be numerically measured and analyzed statistically to generalized quantifiable conclusions. Therefore, for my further research on an increase in employee absences at Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel, in the housekeeping department we are going to use quantitative data. The advantage of using quantitative data is that for the research study, it will be easy to analyze, can identify the trends over the years, can test the hypothesis and it will be reliable.
4.1.1 Research DesignCooper ; Schindler, 2003, state that research design provides the basic direction for carrying out a research project so as to obtain answers to research questions According to Hair, Babin, Money and Samouel (2003, p. 57), a researcher should choose a design that will (1) provide relevant information on the research questions and (2) will do the job most efficiently.

4.1.2 Research Methods
The most common method of providing primary date is by using questionnaires, interviews, observations and experiments. Therefore, questionnaires and interviews have been used for the research study on employee absenteeism at the hotel.

Questionnaire
Questionnaire is one of the most common and popular tools to gather data from a large number of people.

Importance of Questionnaires
Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them.

Advantages of using questionnaire, it is less time consuming, can target a larger number of people compared to interview, it is cheaper compared to interview, it is representative sample- can generalized to obtain the same information, no need for skill interviewer, usually used for sensitive topics, respondent can express themselves freely by using their own words and validity-reflect more the reality.

Interviews
An interview can either be a series of questions asked directly by the researcher to the respondent or it can be conducted as a discussion. We have used interviews and close ended questionnaire to proceed. Close ended questionnaire have been handed to the employees and we have interview the manager of the housekeeping department.
Importance of using Interviews
An interview is important in research because through it you will gather information needed in order to support your findings and also it will serve as a baseline. Interviews can also use when researchers want to compare their observations with the replies given by the respondents, to see if they appear true or not.

Advantages of using Interviews, it has higher response rate compared to questionnaires, clarifications can be made at the spot, researcher can observe facial expression and body language of the respondents and valid- can understand the feelings and emotions of the people in the group.

4.2 Time Horizons
Week 1 – Week 12
4.3 Research Model Framework
Dependent Variable
Independent Variable
Increase in Employee
Absenteeism Rate at Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel, in the Housekeeping Department
Job Satisfaction
Lack of Staff Motivation
Stress Factor

4.4 Research Questions
4.4.1 Research Question 1

Locke et al (2007, p.17) defines absenteeism as the lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a social expectation for the employee to be there. Absenteeism is a major problem that employers are faced everyday and it affects the hotel in some way although many do not suffer from the problem of absenteeism as much as others. Absenteeism is managed in a variety of ways in other different hotels, although it can be argued that the effects that absenteeism has on any given hotels are similar.
George ; Jones 2002, state that a number of researchers maintain that job satisfaction represents the primary cause of absenteeism. According to Luthans (1995), research has generally revealed a consistent inverse relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism, i.e. when satisfaction is high, absenteeism tends to be low and when satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high. An employee might therefore be absent for various other reasons, than being dissatisfied with the job.
Many employees feel dissatisfied with their jobs at one point or another. Some employees leave their jobs for better opportunities, while others choose to stay. Employees with low job satisfaction can negatively affect a company because they typically lack motivation, perform poorly and possess negative attitudes. These symptoms can directly affect the hotel’s bottom line. Managers should understand the reasons why employees are unhappy at work.
One of the primary reasons of job satisfaction in the hotel is not paying well. Employees with the lowest incomes are the most dissatisfied with their jobs, despite working for long they still find themselves behind economically. Second reason is there is a lack of career growth and advancement that’s why workers are dissatisfied at their jobs. Employees who feel stuck in their job position are less motivated to maintain high productivity than those who do not. Workers feel valued when employers include them in their long-term plans and show their appreciation through promotions, rewards or remunerations.
Third reason is the hotel management fails to recognize the need for employees to maintain a healthy life and work balance are ultimately affecting their own productivity levels. Even if they can’t offer high salary, one way to improve job satisfaction is to create trade-offs for life and work balance. Instead of offering raises, they might consider incentives such as paid days off and flexible scheduling. The fourth reason is poor management system, another key reason why employees perform poorly in the workplace. Management team plays an important role within the hotel. Managers are responsible for motivating employees, planning, organizing and controlling. Managers with poor leadership skills tend to offer little feedback on employees’ performances. Micromanaging and dictating to employees instead of motivating them can cause a decrease in employee productivity.
Another reason is a drop in staff motivation level can become contagious if the cause is not identified and addressed. Management needs to be conscious of employee motivation, and that means being able to identify the factors that cause a lack of motivation in the workplace. Another factor causing it is rumors in the workplace and to sort out the problem it is important for management to share important information with the staff in a timely manner. This will helps employees to feel confident that management will address rumors and encourages staff members to wait on information from the company before acting on a rumor.

Employees are motivated to succeed at jobs for which they feel prepared and properly trained. Before moving an employee into a higher position with greater responsibility or before allowing any changes to an employee’s job duties, be certain that employee has had the training needed to get started.

Another factoring is workplace stress which appears to be the number one cause of staff absenteeism and is a growing problem around the world that affects not only the health and well-being of employees, but also the productivity of organizations. Work-related stress arises where work demands of various types and combinations that exceed the person’s capacity and capability to cope. Work-related stress can be caused by various events, like in the housekeeping department an employee might feel under pressure as the demands of their job such as long hours or responsibilities are greater than they can comfortably manage. Other sources of work-related stress include conflict with co-workers or bosses, constant change, and threats to job security.
Therefore, it is important for employers to recognize work-related stress as a significant health and safety issue. The organization should take steps to ensure that employees are not subjected to unnecessary stress, namely; ensuring a safe working environment and make sure that everyone is properly trained for their job, which ultimately will reduced absences, staff turnover and increased productivity and have a greater job satisfaction.
4.4.2 Research Question 2Motivating employees to complete their job duties at a satisfactory or better level can be challenging. Staff members show motivation when they are self-inspired to perform tasks and proud of their work. Employees who do not have the drive to succeed in the hotel can adversely impact others in the workplace, which can directly affect the success of the hotel. Dissatisfaction in the workplace, leading to no employee motivation, can cause negative consequences. Employees who lack motivation may stop caring about the quality of their work. Those who don’t expect recognition are likely to feel comfortable passing on blame for failing to meet objectives or producing low quality work, leaving them little reason to devote additional time to their tasks.

Another negative impact of employee absenteeism it will have in the hotel is low morale which will affect income, productivity, financial competitiveness and organizational objectives, (Sauermann & Cohen, 2008). Low morale also causes employees to lose interest, especially when managers don’t appreciate their efforts and the tasks performed (Zeynep ; Huckman, 2008). A costly indicator of low morale is high employee turnover. This happens when employees leave their jobs because they feel unhappy and have no incentives to stay. The negative effect of employee turnover is disconcerting because of its great implication both on financial and on productivity levels. Financially means the hotel management has to hire new employees either with higher salaries payment or by additional recruiting expenses. (Lee ; Liu, 2009), state that when an employee’s leave the hotel, they take with them the knowledge, skills and ability that helped to contribute towards the goals, profit and performance of the hotel.

Another negative effect of employee absenteeism is decrease in productivity level. Productivity is defined as the effective and efficient utilization of all resources; material, labor, capital, information and time (ILO, 2017). Low productivity is indicated through many signs which include poor quality of work, lack of competitiveness, shortages of skills, low productivity technology, poor industrial relations, and poor human resource management. Managers have to work for improving the morale of their employees, as high morale makes the work a better working environment, and it helps the organization to attain its goals easily (Likert, 1932).

Stress is the universal problem in every organization; it affects human well-being, peace and health. Stress can make an employee lose confidence, irritable, depressed, alienated, and apprehensive. When employee feels these negatives effects of stress in the workplace, it not only will affect them, but also the work performance, your co-workers, and the surroundings. Stress make employees ignore their duties, which can affect workflow and processes and, eventually, put the entire hotel in problem.

These negative effects of stress in the workplace are something that managers should always observe, as they are the ones who are responsible for looking out for the entire team and delegating responsibilities; they should also be aware of tasks that induce stress. In addition, they should also know how to keep their workforce happy by making sure that their workforce is physically, mentally, and psychologically satisfied.

4.4.3 Research Question 3To recommend we can say that the hotel management, employers and managers should find out ways to motivate their employees. Listening to employees and considering their complaints is one way to identify the source of a motivation problem. Managers have to work for improving the morale of their employees, as high morale makes the work a better working environment, and it helps the organization to attain its goals easily, (Likert, 1932).

To give their best, employees should be able to evolve in an environment that promotes their wellbeing. They should simply feel good to come to work and enjoy positive work relationships. That’s why it’s important for managers to solve conflicts early as soon as they arise in their team.

A good work environment will also be dependent on an organization’s internal communication, whether it is formal or informal. Everything is a matter of quantity and should not put the spotlight on teams while leaving individuals to the side. All should be recognized and appreciated according to their level of contribution in the hotel.

The management should make sure everyone is happy within their department and engage in the decision making for the long term process of the hotel. Reward employees give remunerations to encourage employees to work even better and provide feedback on a regular basis, to track down their performance of their work. The hotel management team can introduce a key performance indicator which will not only monitor the performance of the employees but also the performance of the hotel as well and a great workplace should be stimulating and motivating.
4.5 Research InstrumentsA sample of employee questionnaire, survey questionnaire on job satisfaction and interview questionnaire for manager(s) were prepared as it can be seen in Appendix (B) to (D).
4.6 Location of the study
The research study was undertaken at the Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel, which is situated at Wolmar, on the West Coast of the Island at Flic-en-Flac, in the housekeeping department where there is an increase in employee absenteeism rate during the past 3 years.

4.7 Population ; ParticipantsThe population for the present study consisted of employees in the housekeeping department of Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel. There are a total of 30 employees working in the housekeeping department.
4.8 Sampling Designs/ Sample SizeSampling
According to Cooper and Schindler (2003, p. 179), the basic idea of sampling is by selecting some elements in a population, we may draw conclusions about the entire population. Furthermore, Bless and Higson-Smith (1995, p. 86) highlight the main, advantages of sampling: gathering data on a sample is less time-consuming, it is less costly and sampling is a practical way of collecting data when the population is extremely large.
4.8.2 Sampling Designs
According to Hair et al. (2003, p. 211), sampling methods can be divided into two broad categories: probability and non-probability sampling. According to (Cooper ; Schindler, 2003) in probability sampling each participant has an equal chance of being selected. Random sampling is the simplest form of probability sampling. On the other hand, in non-probability sampling the members are selected from the population in some non-random manner (Hair et al., 2003, p. 217).The probability of selecting elements within a population is therefore unknown.
The sampling design that was considered appropriate for the present study is non-probability sampling; being a researcher, I selected a specific department that is housekeeping department within Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel.
4.8.3 Sample SizeThe ideal sample size of 30 % is considered acceptable for most research purposes as it provides the ability to generalize to a population (Cresswell, 2003; Sekaran, 2000). Therefore, out of 30 employees in the housekeeping department only …. have responded for the employee questionnaire and ….. have responded for the job satisfaction survey.

4.9 Pilot Study
Carrying out a pilot study is a strategy used by researchers to help them to spot problems with their research before it is underway. Thus, the study of employee questionnaires are of utmost importance as it would give an indication about the standing of the research instrument. For this reason, a pilot test is found to be important. This pre-testing will help to make light on issues like:
Whether the questions set in both research tools are well understood and is easy to understand.

Whether respondents are reluctant to answer questions.

The time frame to answer the questionnaire.

The length of the questionnaire is it too long or short.

What would discourage them to fill in the questionnaire?
Therefore, for this research the pilot test was carried out with a sample of 30 employees, out of it only xxxxx employees responded for the pre-testing stage. With quantitative research every precaution should be taken to interpret the data as they are presented by the respondents. Thus, by including various sources of data in the pilot test, more accuracy, objectivity and rigor have been brought.
4.10 Data Collection
The research used is primary data. Data collected at first hand by the researcher. A well predesigned structured questionnaire containing both open and closed questions was used to collect the primary data (See Appendix B). The questionnaire used in this study has five parts. The first part solicited the staff’s demographic and background information. Part (B & C) of the survey was meant to assess participants’ past absence behavior in the last twelve months. Subsequently, participants were asked to provide an open-ended response describing the reason(s) for the absence. Part (D) asked staff to indicate whether they perceived absence as a problem among staff and if so, to provide an open-ended description of the top three reasons why the staff absent so much. The factors were selected based on the literature review. The fifth part of the survey was an open-ended question asking the participants to describe the most important change that the management of the hotel could implement to reduce employee absenteeism from increasing. The instrument was considered appropriate for the study because it is less costly in terms of time and more flexible for busy respondents. The questionnaire was pretested to ensure its effectiveness and standardization.
5.0 Findings ; Discussions5.1 Data Preparation
5.1.1 Sample demographics and data screeningTable 1: Showing Socio-Demographic Details of Respondents
Socio-Demographics Details Number of Respondents (N = 30) Percentage (100%)
Age Group 18 – 25 years 26 – 35 years Above 36 years Marital Status Single Married Divorcee Gender Male Female Interpretation
From the above data representation on the table, it was observed out of 30 employees, xxxxxxx of the employees lie between the age group of 18-25 years and xxxxx were between the age group of 26-35yrs. It was observed that xxxxx of the employees are married and xxxxxx are single. In the company records, it was observed that the employees who are single, they are more prone to leaves as compared to the married individuals as they have the responsibility of their families. Therefore, the major concern about the absenteeism revolves around the employees who are single.
Table 2: Showing the Working Environment
Conditions Number of Respondents (N=30) Percentage (100%)
Very Good Good Fair Poor Interpretation
As per the above data representation, it was observed that xxxxxx of the employees think that the working environment was very good and xxxxxx of the employees say it was good this means that working environment is satisfactory and it is not the major factor to be considered for absenteeism.

Table 3: Employee Work Overtime
Work Overtime
Yes / No Number of Respondents (N=30) Percentage (100%)
Yes No Average you work overtime in a week
Hours Number of Respondents (N=30) Percentage (100%)
1 – 3hours 4 – 6 hours 6 hours plus Interpretation
As per the above data representation, it was observed that xxxxx of the employees work overtime this mean the maximum population work overtime. It was observed that xxxxxx of the employees work for an average of 1-3 hrs. In a week this shows their need for money. This shows that employees are eager to earn additional income, partially indicates that employee’s involvement and commitment level for the work.
Table 4: Showing reasons for taking leaves
Reasons Number of Respondents (N=30) Percentage (100%)
Sickness Lack of interest in job Personal Reasons Poor Working Condition Long Working Hours Interpretation
As per the above data representation, it was observed that xxxxx of the times employees are being absent due to personal reasons and xxxxxx of the times due to sickness employees take leave from the organizations. So personal reasons, and sickness is the root cause for absenteeism of the employees.
5.1.2 Data entry and missing data5.2 Descriptive Statistics
5.3 Research Question 1 (result & discussion)5.4 Research Question 25.5 Research Question 35.6 Conclusion
6.0 Conclusion
6.1 Summary of the outcomes6.2 RecommendationsAbsenteeism is a major problem to tackle, especially when employees make poor and lame excuses for missing work and it can be challenging for management to effectively monitor, control and to reduce absenteeism. While conducting this research study on an increase in employee absenteeism rate at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel, in the housekeeping department, it is observed absences of employees should be handled efficiently and needed careful planning. It is essential to manage the issue of absenteeism. Because lower absenteeism will help to reduce cost, improve productivity and also establish a healthy work environment. In this competitive business world every hotel industry should develop a strong and professional approach to handle employee absenteeism. To reduce absenteeism of the employees, the present study offers the following recommendations:
Allowed employees to have more control over their work schedules
Allowed employees have the ability to select and swap shifts at short notice which will decrease the likelihood of absence.
Provide a better working environment for employees.
Doing the job less stressful.
Provide feedback on regular basis be it positive or negative.

Allowed employees to participate in decision making process.
Build a healthy relationship with all with all staff in other departments.
Make the job more secure.
Provide career counseling and health & safety measures
Implementing a thorough record system for every employee.
Informing properly and regularly update your employees about your standards and policies regarding absenteeism.

Providing welfare measures and fringe benefits, balancing the need for the employee and the ability of the organization.
Providing high wages and allowances based on the organizational financial position.
Improving the communication network, particularly the upward communication.
Granting leave and financial assistance liberally in case of sickness of the employee and his family members.

These recommendations are not only applicable in Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel but also in other hotels. It should be remembered that while managing absences, the implementation of a proper measurement system is very important. These will result in the proactive handling of a hotel`s absenteeism. The important thing is to identify the causes of the problem first and treat them in an appropriate way.

6.3 Overall contributionsThe study has highlighted which factors contribute to an increase in employee absenteeism as perceived by respondents. Instances where there are differences of opinion on the extent to which some factors contribute to absenteeism were also identified. The recommendations are aimed at assisting organizations and managers in reducing absenteeism in the workplace, and by doing so, improving the quality of work.

6.4 LimitationsSmaller samples tend to reduce the likelihood that the sample is representative of the population under study (Polit & Hungler 1995:240). Small sample size is one of the main limitations of the present study. The items in the questionnaire were also few in numbers. Future studies on absenteeism may be carried out in larger extent with considerable sample size. The research was conducted at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel, found in the West Coast of the Island at Flic en Flac. Only the employees of Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel, in the housekeeping department have been considered in this study. The findings can therefore only be applied only to the hotel.
Limitations of using Questionnaire
However, the problems that I faced while conducting the survey at the hotel was that the respondents just answer the questionnaire for the sake of the organization as it is an anonymous tool. They may also give bias information as they may not have the information regarding the issue dealt with. Moreover, questionnaires may be sometimes too demanding in terms of lots of small personal questions. In addition, the length of the questionnaires may often discourage the respondents to answer it. Nevertheless, a questionnaire is very useful in the gathering of primary data and sometimes it reveals the real truth of the actual situations.
Limitation of using Interview
As Cohen and Manion (1994) point out, one disadvantage of this method is that it is prone to subjectivity and bias as the interview is conducted by the researcher and the interviewee. Answering questions may be quite embarrassing especially if the interviewee and the interviewer are not very close to each other and if the issue discussed is sensitive. This technique may not be quite reliable to collect enough information about the issue as the researcher’s point of views may influence the interviewee to answer questions in a certain way.
6.5 Further research directionsIn an effort to reduce absenteeism, there are a number of effective strategies that can be put in place. For instance, offering flexible working arrangements could prevent employees from taking unplanned absence. Most employees are likely to have other priorities outside of work, such as family commitments, and as highlighted in our report many would appreciate fluid work schedules that allow them to vary their work around certain obligations.

6.6 Conclusion
7.0 ReferenceHistory of Taj Hotel Resort ; Palace
https://www.ukessays.com/essays/tourism/history-of-taj-hotel-tourism-essay.php (23/March/2015)
Overview on Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa
https://mauritiusattractions.com/wedding-at-maradiva-villas-resort-spa-i-300.html (n.d)
Clare Bermingham, “Employee’s Understanding of Workplace Absenteeism and the Investigation of Stress as a Contributing Factor” (August 2013, 10)
http://trap.ncirl.ie/912/1/clarebermingham.pdf
Stavros A. Drakopoulos and Katerina Grimani, “The Relationship between Absence from Work and Job Satisfaction: Greece and UK comparisons” (May, 2011, 5)
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de76/a01151e31f4342d62c093bdec435572749fb.pdfKhagendra Nath Gangai, Rachna Agrawal ; Monika Gupta, “Relationship between Workplace Motivation and Absenteeism among employees in retail industry: (Volume 4, Number 3, July – September’ 2015)
http://pezzottaitejournals.net/pezzottaite/images/ISSUES/V4N3/IJRRBPV4N315.pdfGeorge N. Root III, “Factors for Lack of Motivation in the Workplace”
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/factors-lack-motivation-workplace-11550.html (n.d)
Rose Johnson, “Key Reasons for Job Dissatisfaction and Poor Employee Performance”
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/key-reasons-job-dissatisfaction-poor-employee-performance-25846.html (n.d)
Kate McFarlin, “The Effects of Low Job Satisfaction”
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effects-low-job-satisfaction-10721.html (n.d)
Carol Deeb,” Consequences of No Employee Motivation”
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/consequences-employee-motivation-41238.html (n.d)
Wetherall & Lippell (2016) “What is the Impact of Low Employee Motivation Levels within Organizations”
http://www.jrsbm.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/JRSBM-Vol-2-Wetherall.pdfLaurie Brenner, “What Are the Causes of Job Dissatisfaction?”
https://woman.thenest.com/causes-job-dissatisfaction-10450.html (n.d)
Osama Samih Shaban, Ziad Al-Zubi, Nafez Ali, Atalla Alqotaish “The Effect of Low Morale and Motivation on Employees’ Productivity & Competitiveness in Jordanian Industrial Companies” (Vol. 10, No. 7; 2017)
file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/68738-249873-1-SM.pdfYana Guterman (2015),”Customer Satisfaction Evaluation and Recommendations for a Marketing Communication” (December, 2015, 6)
https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/102420/thesis_Guterman.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (December, 2015)
Edina Ajanovi?, Beykan Çizel, “What makes a successful hotel reputation management strategy: Qualitative research on Trip Advisor Hotel”
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298431300_WHAT_MAKES_A_SUCCESSFUL_HOTEL_REPUTATION_MANAGEMENT_STRATEGY_QUALITATIVE_RESEARCH_ON_TRIPADVISOR_HOTEL_REVIEWS accessed Mar 25 2018.

Daniel Edward Craig, “Hotel Reputation Management”
https://www.customer-alliance.com/en/articles/hotel-reputation-management/ (August, 2014)
Work-related stress
https://eazysafe.com/blog/stress-management/work-related-stress-common-causes/ (n.d)
Beverley Ann Josias, 2005, “The relationship between Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism”
https://etd.uwc.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11394/1476/Josias_MCOM_2005.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (November, 2005)
Declan Naughton, 2005, “Study of Absenteeism Within Company, its causes and the management of it”
http://trap.ncirl.ie/730/1/Declan_Naughton.pdf (July, 2005)
8.0 Appendices
8.1 Appendix A: Total Number of Absences in the Housekeeping DepartmentTotal Number Of Absenteeism in the Housekeeping Dept
The Number of Staff in the Housekeeping Dept is 30
  2015 2016 2017
January 10 12 14
February 8 10 11
March 11 13 15
April 12 13 14
May 10 12 13
June 8 10 11
July 12 11 13
August 13 14 12
September 12 12 13
October 9 10 11
November 11 12 13
December 10 15 17
Total 126 144 157
Outsource by the housekeeping manager Mr. Xxxxxx and Priscilla xxxxxx who works in the housekeeping department.

8.2 Appendix B: Employee Questionnaire in the Housekeeping DepartmentQuestionnaire for Employees in the Housekeeping Department
Dear Employees’,
I am presently conducting a survey on employee absenteeism at Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel, as part of my studies for a (Hons) in Bachelor in Business Administration (BBA). As part of my research I would be very grateful if you could complete the following questionnaire, which should take no more than 15 minutes, and return it to me before 30thApril 2018 because your input is very important for the study. Your responses will be held in strictest confidence. Please circle the responses for each question.

Once again thank you for your cooperation.

Kind Regards,
Rugnoo Luxmee Neha
Part A:
Personal Profile
Name Gender Male Female Age Below 25 years 26 – 35 years Above 36 years
Marital Status Married Single Divorcee
Occupation Nationality Educational Qualification Questions:
Part B:
Why did you choose to work in housekeeping department? (Choose all that applies)
Free employee meals.

Free uniforms.

This was the only job available.

Medical/ health benefits.

Flexible work schedule.

Good wages.

Other please specify
How long were you trained for this job?
One week
One month
More than a month.

Is there a difference between what you were trained to do and what your supervisor expects you to do?
Yes
No
Do you always have enough supplies?
Yes
No
How long have you been on this job?
Less than 3 months.

3 months to 6 months.

1-2 years.

2 years and above.

How long do you plan to be on this job?
6 months.

6 months to 1 year.

1-2 years.

3 years and above.

How long have been working here?
Less than 1 year
1 – 5years
More than 10 years
Are you satisfied with your basic salary?
Yes
No
How is your relationship with the housekeeping manager?
Excellent
Very good
Good
Poor
Worst
Do you have an opportunity to share your ideas at work?
Yes
No
Do your co-workers help you with work-load?
Yes
No
Can you balance your personal and professional life?
Yes
No
How do you think your job could be made easier? (Choose all that applies.)
Provide enough supplies.
Reduce amount of work.
Reduce the job monotonous.
Assign a specific amount of work per day.

Other please specify
Do you feel Housekeeping is recognized as an important department in this hotel?
Yes
No
What factors might force the employees to leave the organization?
Personal reason
Sickness
Lack of interest
Career opportunity
Others please specify
What do you like the best about your job? (Choose all that applies.)
Flexible work schedule
My wage
My colleagues
The training I received
Other please specify
Do you feel that the company provides opportunity for growth and developments?
Yes
No
Have you ever been recognized for good work since you started work at this hotel?
Yes
No
Have you had a promotion since you started working here?
Yes
No
Have you worked at another hotel before?
No
Yes
If yes, how long were you on your other job?
Less than 6 months.
6 months to one year.
1-2 yrs.
3 yrs or more.

What was your job at the other hotel?
Housekeeper
Waiter /Waitress
Gardener
Steward
Barman
If other please specify
How many hotels including this one have you worked for?
l
2
3
5 or more
Why did you leave your previous job?
Low pay
Your supervisor
Transfer of spouse
No motivational activities
Other please specify
I would suggest the following changes to be made to improve the working conditions in the housekeeping department, (choose all that applies)
More help
More supplies
Increase wages
Change management system
I believe that my suggestions and opinion will be used to improve the working conditions of the housekeeping department.

Yes
No
Part C:
A) During the past twelve months have been absent from your work?
Yes
No
If yes, briefly state the causes of absence.

1)
2)
3)
Part D:
Is absence a problem among employee in the housekeeping department at Maradiva Villas Resort ; Spa Hotel?
Yes
No
What’s in your opinion the top three reasons that employees are being absent from work?
1)
2)
3)
Part E:
Briefly outline the changes that Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel (the management) could implement to reduce employee absences from increasing.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8.3 Appendix C: Survey Questionnaire on Job Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction Survey at Maradiva Villas Resort & Spa Hotel
My name is Rugnoo Luxmee Neha and I am currently studying at Charles Telfair Institute, doing Bachelor in Business Administration (BBA). I’m in my final year and as part of the course students are required to undertake a research project and write a dissertation. To help with this, I should be very grateful if you could spend few minutes to complete this questionnaire. It is important that you understand why the research is being carried out, therefore please read the following information carefully. The purpose of this study is to investigate what factors have an impact on employees’ absenteeism rate and what impact it has on employees’ decision to stay or leave the hotel; therefore, this questionnaire will asked you about your experience of working and your job satisfaction in your hotel. It will take approximately 10 minutes to complete the questionnaire and the participation is completely voluntary. Please feel free to add any your own comments to the questionnaire. 
Thank you very much for your help!If you wish to receive further information about the study, please do not hesitate to email the following contact: Researcher: Rugnoo Luxmee NehaEmail: [email protected] / [email protected] Questions:
What is your gender?
Male
Female
What is your age?
Below 25 years
26 – 35 years
36 plus
What is the highest level of education you have completed?
Primary School
High School
Certificate/Diploma
Bachelor
Degree
Master
PHD
Which department you are in?
Front Office Department
Food ; Beverage (F;B) Department
Housekeeping Department
Reservation Department
Human Resource ; Training Department
Finance Department
If other please specify
How long have you worked in the hotel?
1 – 5 Months
6 – 10 Months
More than a year
More than 10 years
Do you think your future career development prospect is positive in the hotel?
Yes, why?
No, why and will you leave your current position?
Please state below.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Questions about your work in the hotel.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
I am interested in my job. I can make good use of my strengths and abilities at work. My workload is reasonable. I am satisfied with the shift system (working hours) and over time working system in my hotel. My job provides me a sense of accomplishment. I have authority to decide how to satisfied customers. I do not feel my work is monotonous.
Questions about your work relationship.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
I have good relationship with my colleagues. Communications between departments are good. My supervisor admires and supports me when my work is in some way outstanding. My supervisor has ability to help me and I trust him/her.
Question about compensation, benefits and rewards in the hotel.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
The connection between pay and performance is fair and reasonable. My salary is reasonable. I am satisfied with my salary. I have more opportunities for promotion, if I work hard. Staff benefits of my hotel are attractive. Compared to other hotels, salary of my hotel is more attractive. Questions about working environment in the hotel.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
I am satisfied with my working conditions. The team spirit in my department is good. The hotel thinks highly of staff safety. Questions about your job satisfaction in general.

Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
Management of the hotel is high quality. The hotel welcomes our suggestions to improve hotel management. I am willing t recommend our hotel as an ideal company. Our hotel has a positive future. I am satisfied to work in my hotel in general. Do you have any recommendations to your hotel management and this survey?
Yes
No
8.4 Appendix D: Interview Questionnaire for Housekeeping Manager(s)Personal Data
Interviewer Employer Name Position Educational Qualification Does absenteeism have any impact on the motivational level and performance in the organization?
Does the employees’ share a good relationship with their supervisor and housekeeping manager?
How do you manage conflicts between employees’?
Do you provide training for new employee who recently joins the department?
What are the strategies used upon to reduce employee from being absent from work?
What are the changes can be implemented to reduce employee absenteeism rate from increasing?
When making a decision to fire an employee, do you find it easy because of the company’s needs OR difficult because of the employee’s needs?
Overall, please tell us what you have found to be the most rewarding aspect of supervising others.  What about the most challenging task?
What strategies would you use to motivate your team? 
How do you handle stress and pressure? 

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